See other CCG websites
"Offer" and "Offerings".
This Is Appendix
43 From The Companion Bible.
are some twenty-four Hebrew words, more or less synonymous, which are
translated "offer" and "offering" in the
Hebrew Old Testament. These Hebrew words are also translated in other
ways, so that it is important for the truth-seeker to know, in every
passage, which word is used.
The various words are noted in the margin, except
when they are clearly translated by their distinctive meanings, such
as burnt-offering, peace-offering, heave-offering, etc.
The VERB "to
Karab means to draw near, but in the Hiphil
conjugation to make to approach, or draw
near : hence, to bring near. See Korban No. II. i. below.
Nagash = to come near, after having been
so brought, that is to say, to enjoy the presence which the Korban (see below II. i.) has secured. Compare
Jeremiah 30:21 where we have both words. Hence used of coming
near with offerings. Compare Greek engizo,
Hebrews 7:19, and prosphero, Matthew 2:11; 5:23;
8:4. Mark 1:44. Luke 5:14. John 16:2. In the Epistle to the
Hebrews it is used twenty times in a sacrificial sense, except
Hebrews 12:7, "God brings you near as sons". See
also Hebrews 9:14, 28. Used also of the sinner's approach to
God by offering, Hebrews 4:16; 7:25; 10:1, 22; 11:6.
Asah, to make ready or prepare a victim for sacrifice; to make a victim a specific offering.
Hence, to offer. First occurrence in Exodus 10:25
(sacrifice). Then Exodus 29:36, 38, 39 (offer), etc.
Zabach, to slay [and offer up]; hence to
offer what has been slain; to sacrifice. Hence No. xii.
Shahat, to kill or slay (as a butcher);
used of men as well as of animals. Judges 12:6. 1Kings 18:40.
First occurrence Genesis 22:10; 37:31. Then Exodus 12:6.
'Alah = to offer up, especially a burnt
offering, from its name in II. ii. below.
Katar = to burn or turn into vapour.
Used of the incense which = Kethoreth, but also
of the 'Olah (II. ii) and parts of the Minchah (II. iii.) and the Zebach (II. xii.) because these
ascended to Jehovah.
Saraph is used of burning up (or rather, down)
the sin-offering, because nothing ascended up to God in that
to offer up as a heave-offering.
Korban a gift, or an admittance-offering: from
I. i. above. It is the present brought, to this day in the East,
in order to secure an audience, or to see the face of the superior,
and find access to his presence. Hence called to-day, "the face-offering ". When the admittance has been secured and entrance has been
obtained, then the real offering or present has to be given.
Hence Korban is essentially an admittance-offering; securing the entree. Compare the verb, Judges 3:18. Compare
its use in New Testament, Matthew 5:23; 8:4; 23:18. Mark 7:11.
'Olah = the burnt offering: so called from the Hiphil
of the verb 'alah, to cause to ascend [as the flame and
smoke ascend by burning]. In Greek holocausta, which
conveys its meaning as being wholly burnt.
Minchah = the Meal offering = a present, assuch. Hence
a gift-offering, not necessarily to secure admittance, but to
secure favour. It might be sacrifice by blood, or more generally
and later, without blood. It is used of the offerings of Cain
and Abel (Genesis 4:3, 4, 5), of Jacob's present to Esau (Genesis
32:13-21), etc. In Exodus and Leviticus it acquires a special
limitation, and is the only word rendered "meat", or better
(with Revised Version), "meal-offering" (though it has a wider
signification than literal "meal").
Shelem = the Peace offering, from the root Shalam,
which conveys the idea of peace on the ground of perfection
of compensation or recompense. Hence connected with the thought
of rendering payment of vows or praises because of peace enjoyed.
Sometimes combined with Zebach (No. xii, below). It is
eucharistic rather than propitiatory.
Chattath = the Sin offering from chatt'a to sin coming short of, by missing the mark in sins of commission.
In the Piel it means to purge from such sin (Psalm 51:7).
In the 'Olah (II. ii) the blood went upward, in
the chattath it went downward and outward "without
the camp". The former was burnt up on the altar, the
latter went down on the ground.
'Asam = the Trespass offering. Relates to sins of omission,
while chattath relates to sins of commission =
sin in general; 'Asham sin in relation to Mosaic Law;
sins of error arising from ignorance or negligence.
Nedabah = Free-will or Voluntary offerings.
See Leviticus 22:18, etc. It refers not to the nature or mode of the offering, but to the motive. Not
the same as Leviticus 1:4, "voluntary will", which = "for his
Terumah = the Heave offering. So called because
it was lifted up on high in presentation to Jehovah for
Himself alone. See I. ix. above and Exodus 29:27.
Tenuphah = the Wave offering, because it was
waved to and fro (not up and down like No. viii), and presented
for the four quarters of the earth.
Nesek = the Drink offering. From nasak, to pour
out. Compare Psalm 2:6 (set). Philippians 2:17. 2Timothy 4:6.
'Ishsheh = any offering made by fire (compare Exodus 29:18.
Leviticus 24:7, 9).
= any offering slain (from No. II. iv, above). The proper
word for a victim, slain and offered. The Hebrew name
for altar (mizbeah) is derived from the same root, and
denotes the place of slaughter. Compare Genesis 22.