Christian Churches of God

No. F054






Commentary on 1Timothy

(Edition 1.0 20201030-20201030)



1Timothy is regarded as the First of the Three Pastoral letter written.




Christian Churches of God

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Commentary on 1Timothy


The Epistle of 1Timothy is considered the First of the Three Pastoral letters written and Bullinger considers it was written ca 67 CE. Both letters are closely related in style to that of Titus and also to Paul’s other works. J.C. Beker considers 2Timothy to more closely resemble the “genuine” Pauline letters than does 1Timothy or Titus and says: “on this basis many scholars have concluded that the author has incorporated in his letter Pauline fragments” (Interp. Dict. Vol. 4. Art. Timothy, First and Second letters to. p. 651).  H. C. Kee seems to carry these doubts also (art. Timothy (ibid).  We see no reason to doubt the authority of the letters as Paul’s work and especially with the details of his family in 2Timothy.


Timothy was a trusted assistant of Paul and first appears as a trusted assistant of Paul and Silvanus (Silas) at Corinth and they are linked in the First Letter to the Thessalonians (1:1). He was sent back to the Thessalonians by Paul when they had reached Athens. Paul describes him as a brother (1Thess. 3:2), as God’s Servant in the Gospel of Christ, and by implication even ranks him among the apostles (2:6 ibid).  In the Letters to the Corinthians he was also listed as Paul’s representative and the bearer of the letter (1Cor. 16:10). We will deal more with this matter in the commentaries on those letters. Bullinger also has more information in his notes below.


Book Overview – 1Timothy

by E.W. Bullinger



1Timothy 1:1-2. BENEDICTION.

1Timothy 1:3-20. ADMONITION.

PRACTICAL. Faith and a good conscience defined.
1Timothy 2:1 - 1Timothy 3:13. INSTRUCTION AND DISCIPLINE. Men. Kings and others. Women. Men. Overseers and ministers.
1Timothy 3:14-15. INTENDED VISIT AND INTERVAL. Faith and love which is in Christ Jesus.
1Timothy 4:1-12. THE MYSTERY OF INIQUITY. Its characteristics. What is needed to meet it.

1Timothy 5:1 - 1Timothy 6:2. INSTRUCTION AND DISCIPLINE. Men. Women.

1Timothy 6:3-21. ADMONITION.

PRACTICAL. False teachers. Riches (Danger). Riches (Charge). Charge.

1Timothy 6:21. BENEDICTION.


1. The Son of a Gentile father and of a Jewish mother, Timothy was born either at Derbe or Lystra, probably the latter. He is already a "disciple" when first mentioned (Acts 16:1). His father is nowhere named, but his mother, Eunice, and his grandmother, Lois, have secured honourable mention wherever the Scriptures are read (2 Timothy 1:52 Timothy 3:14). Most likely Timothy had been brought to the light during the apostle’s first visit to Lystra, and thereafter the two were much in association. Paul refers to him in affectionate terms as his own son in the faith, his dearly beloved son, his son Timothy, and while undergoing his second imprisonment at Rome he earnestly begged that his felloe-worker should come to him. See also Philippians 2:19 Philippians 2:22.

2. This, the earliest of the three Pastoral Epistles, as they are termed, was written probably in A.D. 67 (Appdx-180), but it is not known where the apostle was at the time, although some think he was at Troas, others in Macedonia (Appdx-180).

3. To Timothy were given the earliest instructions for orderly arrangement in the church, these instructions being of the simplest nature, and, as Dean Alford well observes with regard to the Pastoral Epistles as a whole, the directions given "are altogether of an ethical, not of an hierarchical, kind". These directions afford no warrant whatever for the widespread organizations of the "churches" as carried on to-day.

4. Even in the earliest period the increasing heresies are much in evidence. Some there were who had swerved and turned aside altogether; others denied vital truth and thus overthrew "the faith of some". Hence Paul’s constant warnings against such, and instructions to enlighten the opposers, "if God peradventure will give them repentance to the acknowledging of the truth". How the leaven spread is only too plainly shown in Paul’s Second Epistle, which has been aptly termed a picture of the ruin of the church through departure from the apostolic doctrine.” (Bulinger’s notes)


Beker considers that the letters are “primarily concerned with church order and are probably directed to churches in Asia Minor at the beginning of the second century ” (Interp. Dict. loc. cit.). The clearly subordinationist language of 1Timothy 3:16 and 6:16 perhaps motivated the attacks on the authenticity and also the statements regarding the intent of the letters. Such matters are reinforced with the insertion of the blatant Trinitarian forgery in 3:16 in the Receptus from Codex A in the British Museum (see below). However, Paul’s attacks on the antinomians and Gnostic heresies already extant among the churches at his time refute such views re second century issues (cf. Heresy in the Apostolic Churches (No. 089)).  


The New Oxford Annotated Bible (RSV) holds that “the vocabulary and style of the letters differ widely from the acknowledged letters of Paul: some of his leading theological ideas are entirely absent (e.g. the union of the believer with Christ, the power and witness of the Spirit, freedom from the law).”  They also assume that the sense here of the faith as the Christian religion rather than what they assume to be the believer’s relationship to Christ is also indicative of non Pauline authorship. These comments isolate clearly that they assume Paul’s alleged antinomianism is absent here and they are subordinationist and thus the texts must be discredited (cf. PAUL: Part I Paul and the Law (No. 271)). Also in Chapter 4:1-5 Paul writes against the practices that were entering the church, not just from Kashrut among the Pharisees,  but also from vegetarianism coming in from the Mystery Cults.  He is not negating the Food Laws at all (cf. The Food Laws (No. 015); Vegetarianism and the Bible (No. 183) and Doctrines of Demons in the Last Days (No. 048)).


Intent of the chapters

Chapter 1 upholds the Law as the proper guide if it be used lawfully. The law is made for sinners to prevent sin and not for the righteous.  It was for that purpose that Christ came into the world to save sinners (v. 15).  In this aspect he follows the sentiments of the apostles as per James and Peter and John where sin is transgression of the law (cf. 1Jn. 3:4).  This is no simple pastoral letter.


Chapter 1

1Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by command of God our Savior and of Christ Jesus our hope, 2To Timothy, my true child in the faith: Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord. 3As I urged you when I was going to Macedonia, remain at Ephesus that you may charge certain persons not to teach any different doctrine, 4nor to occupy themselves with myths and endless genealogies which promote speculations rather than the divine training that is in faith; 5whereas the aim of our charge is love that issues from a pure heart and a good conscience and sincere faith. 6Certain persons by swerving from these have wandered away into vain discussion, 7desiring to be teachers of the law, without understanding either what they are saying or the things about which they make assertions. 8Now we know that the law is good, if any one uses it lawfully, 9understanding this, that the law is not laid down for the just but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and sinners, for the unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10immoral persons, sodomites, kidnapers, liars, perjurers, and whatever else is contrary to sound doctrine, 11in accordance with the glorious gospel of the blessed God with which I have been entrusted. 12I thank him who has given me strength for this, Christ Jesus our Lord, because he judged me faithful by appointing me to his service, 13though I formerly blasphemed and persecuted and insulted him; but I received mercy because I had acted ignorantly in unbelief, 14and the grace of our Lord overflowed for me with the faith and love that are in Christ Jesus. 15The saying is sure and worthy of full acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners. And I am the foremost of sinners; 16but I received mercy for this reason, that in me, as the foremost, Jesus Christ might display his perfect patience for an example to those who were to believe in him for eternal life. 17To the King of ages, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory for ever and ever. Amen. 18This charge I commit to you, Timothy, my son, in accordance with the prophetic utterances which pointed to you, that inspired by them you may wage the good warfare, 19holding faith and a good conscience. By rejecting conscience, certain persons have made shipwreck of their faith, 20among them Hymenaeus and Alexander, whom I have delivered to Satan that they may learn not to blaspheme.  (RSV)


Chapter 2 deals with the intent of the worship and that intercessory prayer and thanksgiving be made for all men and for the rulers and those in high positions.


In this text we see that God is our saviour and He desires all men to be saved and come to a knowledge of the truth. Here Paul says there is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Jesus Christ who gave himself as ransom for all (both mankind and the Fallen Host).  Here Paul declares himself a preacher and an apostle, as a teacher of the gentiles in faith and truth.


He requires all of us to pray and worship in peace and that the women adorn themselves in seemly apparel. They are also to remain silent in learning and are to remain silent and have no authority over men in the faith. They are saved through their role in the family.


We have the concept of authority and the ministry and we also have the concept of the use of women in the Church. In 1Timothy 2:11-14 we read:

1Timothy 2:11-14 Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. 12But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. 13For Adam was first formed, then Eve; 14And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression. (KJV)


The point being made is that Deaconesses were appointed in the Church for service in the instruction of women. They were not allowed to instruct or have authority over men, but they were labouring in the Church and they did instruct women (and the children) and have instructed women for centuries.


Chapter 2

1First of all, then, I urge that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for all men, 2for kings and all who are in high positions, that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life, godly and respectful in every way. 3This is good, and it is acceptable in the sight of God our Savior, 4who desires all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth. 5For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, 6who gave himself as a ransom for all, the testimony to which was borne at the proper time. 7For this I was appointed a preacher and apostle (I am telling the truth, I am not lying), a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and truth. 8I desire then that in every place the men should pray, lifting holy hands without anger or quarreling; 9also that women should adorn themselves modestly and sensibly in seemly apparel, not with braided hair or gold or pearls or costly attire 10but by good deeds, as befits women who profess religion. 11Let a woman learn in silence with all submissiveness. 12I permit no woman to teach or to have authority over men; she is to keep silent. 13For Adam was formed first, then Eve; 14and Adam was not deceived, but the woman was deceived and became a transgressor. 15Yet woman will be saved through bearing children, if she continues in faith and love and holiness, with modesty.  (RSV)


In Chapter 3 Paul then turns to the rules governing the role of men in the faith.


A bishop must be blameless the husband of one wife. He must manage his household with the attributes listed from verses 2 to 7. The defamation found in the Churches of God in the last days will ensure they are not to enter the First Resurrection as we see from Revelation chapter 3 for Sardis and Laodicea.


Chapter 3

1The saying is sure: If any one aspires to the office of bishop, he desires a noble task. 2Now a bishop must be above reproach, the husband of one wife, temperate, sensible, dignified, hospitable, an apt teacher, 3no drunkard, not violent but gentle, not quarrelsome, and no lover of money. 4He must manage his own household well, keeping his children submissive and respectful in every way; 5for if a man does not know how to manage his own household, how can he care for God's church? 6He must not be a recent convert, or he may be puffed up with conceit and fall into the condemnation of the devil; 7moreover he must be well thought of by outsiders, or he may fall into reproach and the snare of the devil. 8Deacons likewise must be serious, not double-tongued, not addicted to much wine, not greedy for gain; 9they must hold the mystery of the faith with a clear conscience. 10And let them also be tested first; then if they prove themselves blameless let them serve as deacons. 11The women likewise must be serious, no slanderers, but temperate, faithful in all things. 12Let deacons be the husband of one wife, and let them manage their children and their households well; 13for those who serve well as deacons gain a good standing for themselves and also great confidence in the faith which is in Christ Jesus. 14I hope to come to you soon, but I am writing these instructions to you so that, 15if I am delayed, you may know how one ought to behave in the household of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and bulwark of the truth. 16Great indeed, we confess, is the mystery of our religion: He was manifested in the flesh, vindicated in the Spirit, seen by angels, preached among the nations, believed on in the world, taken up in glory. (RSV)


So we see that the deacons are to be blameless as are the bishops and both the husbands of one wife. The wives must also not be slanderers, sober and faithful in all things.


In this chapter we see that in verse 16 the Trinitarians insert God for He based on the forgeries in the Receptus coming from the MS in Codex A. The Greek in that text which had the uncial O meaning He and for which the text has been altered in some publications to read God, which is a forgery arising from the two alterations in Codex A (in the British Museum) with the Uncial O (he) altered by the inserting of the bar to read Theta and then another scribe added sigma so as to read Theta sigma as an abbreviation for the word Theos which exists in no other Greek text. The two additions are made in different ink. This forgery has been carried on into the KJV; (with other Trinitarian additions and alterations to the texts). (cf. Forgeries and Additions/Mistranslations in the Bible (No. 164F) and Forgeries and Mistranslations Relating to the Position of Christ (No. 164G)).


We are called to be a nation of kings and priests, an holy people (Rev. 1:6; 5:10) and it is written that every one who is to be king must prepare for himself the Law of God (Deut. 17:18) so that he will follow the commandments of God in his appointment. So it is with us and so it is ordained in the Churches of God and enshrined in our laws.


All of the ministry hold their office for the benefit of the Church and are credentialed as determined by the Church.


There are two ranks of ministry, Elders or Bishops and Deacons. These officers may carry out the functions for which they are ordained.


A Bishop or Elder may hold any office of the Church and may ordain others to an office as determined by the Church.


A Deacon may hold the offices of Evangelist, or Pastor, or Administrator and may perform the sacraments of the Church to which he is credentialed, within the limitations imposed on him by the Bishop or Elder (see the The Sacraments of the Church (No. 150)).


Deacons have the power of baptism as did Phillip in Acts 8:26-40. In some instances the bishops may direct deacons to baptise, and reserve the laying on of hands if there is a serious problem, as was the case with Simon Magus (cf. Acts 8:12-17). However, it is not normally done that way. Deacons baptise in their own right. No matter what is done it is done for the glory of God, in accordance with His will and for His elect.


No matter what is done let it be done in all humility and let all be subject to those appointed to serve them.


Love one another and let all serve in the meekness and love of God.


Looking at another aspect, of age in the ministry, we notice that the law says a man should be twenty-five years of age before he can be entered into the service of the Temple (Num. 8:24).


A man must be thirty before he can teach.  Christ himself was no exception to this. In the Levitical system they entered into service at twenty-five and ceased at fifty. After fifty they stayed in the ministry of the brethren.


However, ordination can take place before thirty, as was the case with Timothy who was ordained prior to this prescribed age, which we see from 1Timothy 4:12 above. We can deduce this was necessitated because he had to be sent on a mission and so required ordination.


After the leadership of an era that has gone into apostasy, Christ has to resurrect the Church and establish new leadership. Members who know the true doctrines delivered to the original saints of the first century select potential leaders among them based on certain criteria as specified in the Bible.


1Timothy 3:1-7

If there is more than one person who appears to be on the same level of spiritual development, then the leaders must cast the lot after prayer and fasting, so that God through Christ may select the leader (as per Acts 1:26) (cf. Selecting the Ministry (No. 004)).


Chapter 4 deals with the matter of the direction of the Holy Spirit (No. 117) as regards to the Latter Times when the church goes astray departing from the faith giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons (vv. 1-5). (cf. also Doctrines of Demons in the Last Days (No. 048) and Vegetarianism and the Bible (No. 183)).


Chapter 4

1Now the Spirit expressly says that in later times some will depart from the faith by giving heed to deceitful spirits and doctrines of demons, 2through the pretensions of liars whose consciences are seared, 3who forbid marriage and enjoin abstinence from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth. 4For everything created by God is good, and nothing is to be rejected if it is received with thanksgiving; 5for then it is consecrated by the word of God and prayer. 6If you put these instructions before the brethren, you will be a good minister of Christ Jesus, nourished on the words of the faith and of the good doctrine which you have followed. 7Have nothing to do with godless and silly myths. Train yourself in godliness; 8for while bodily training is of some value, godliness is of value in every way, as it holds promise for the present life and also for the life to come. 9The saying is sure and worthy of full acceptance. 10For to this end we toil and strive, because we have our hope set on the living God, who is the Savior of all men, especially of those who believe. 11Command and teach these things. 12Let no one despise your youth, but set the believers an example in speech and conduct, in love, in faith, in purity. 13Till I come, attend to the public reading of scripture, to preaching, to teaching. 14Do not neglect the gift you have, which was given you by prophetic utterance when the council of elders laid their hands upon you. 15Practice these duties, devote yourself to them, so that all may see your progress. 16Take heed to yourself and to your teaching; hold to that, for by so doing you will save both yourself and your hearers.  (RSV)


The question of instruction in the Church can be seen from 1Timothy chapter 5 (KJV).


1Timothy 5:1-2   Rebuke not an elder, but intreat him as a father; and the younger men as brethren; 2The elder women as mothers; the younger as sisters, with all purity.


The text then goes through the structure of widows in the church and the proper ordering of the people in the church (cf. vv. 3-16).


Continuing 1Timothy 5:17

17Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doctrine.


The elders in the church laboured in different fields. Those who were labouring in the word and doctrine (teaching and organising) were considered worthy of honour.

18For the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The labourer is worthy of his reward.


This whole question of elders being given a reward is for various tasks and they are allocated tasks within the church. It is improper to use an elder of the church with muzzling, i.e. not giving him a reward (Deut. 25:4).


Also in 1Timothy 5:19ff. we read in terms of charges.

1Timothy 5:19 Against an elder receive not an accusation, but before two or three witnesses.


These things are important for good order. As we understand, the elders of the church have been targets over the years.

20that sin rebuke before all, that others also may fear. 21I charge thee before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect angels, that thou observe these things without preferring one before another, doing nothing by partiality. 22Lay hands suddenly on no man, neither be partaker of other men's sins: keep thyself pure. 23Drink no longer water, but use a little wine for thy stomach's sake and thine often infirmities. 24Some men's sins are open beforehand, going before to judgment; and some men they follow after.  25Likewise also the good works of some are manifest beforehand; and they that are otherwise cannot be hid.

The structure of this text is keeping the ministry in honour; keeping them under charge; showing no respect of persons in all of the ministry and laying charges against the ministry with due care. All of these things are done for order in the church.

The order of the Church is upheld by the ministry and the brethren supporting them, so that it is not a divided church, but they all work together for the glory of God. These things are important in understanding what we are to do with the ministry in their selection, their training and their long-term supervision and assistance by all of the brethren.


Chapter 5

1Do not rebuke an older man but exhort him as you would a father; treat younger men like brothers, 2older women like mothers, younger women like sisters, in all purity. 3Honor widows who are real widows. 4If a widow has children or grandchildren, let them first learn their religious duty to their own family and make some return to their parents; for this is acceptable in the sight of God. 5She who is a real widow, and is left all alone, has set her hope on God and continues in supplications and prayers night and day; 6whereas she who is self-indulgent is dead even while she lives. 7Command this, so that they may be without reproach. 8If any one does not provide for his relatives, and especially for his own family, he has disowned the faith and is worse than an unbeliever. 9Let a widow be enrolled if she is not less than sixty years of age, having been the wife of one husband; 10and she must be well attested for her good deeds, as one who has brought up children, shown hospitality, washed the feet of the saints, relieved the afflicted, and devoted herself to doing good in every way. 11But refuse to enrol younger widows; for when they grow wanton against Christ they desire to marry, 12and so they incur condemnation for having violated their first pledge.13Besides that, they learn to be idlers, gadding about from house to house, and not only idlers but gossips and busybodies, saying what they should not. 14So I would have younger widows marry, bear children, rule their households, and give the enemy no occasion to revile us. 15For some have already strayed after Satan. 16If any believing woman has relatives who are widows, let her assist them; let the church not be burdened, so that it may assist those who are real widows. 17Let the elders who rule well be considered worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in preaching and teaching; 18for the scripture says, "You shall not muzzle an ox when it is treading out the grain," and, "The laborer deserves his wages." 19Never admit any charge against an elder except on the evidence of two or three witnesses. 20As for those who persist in sin, rebuke them in the presence of all, so that the rest may stand in fear. 21In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus and of the elect angels I charge you to keep these rules without favor, doing nothing from partiality. 22Do not be hasty in the laying on of hands, nor participate in another man's sins; keep yourself pure. 23No longer drink only water, but use a little wine for the sake of your stomach and your frequent ailments. 24The sins of some men are conspicuous, pointing to judgment, but the sins of others appear later. 25So also good deeds are conspicuous; and even when they are not, they cannot remain hidden. (RSV)


The churches and the Angelic Host

In Revelation 1:10-20 it is plain that Christ is the identity who explains the message. The hierarchy is thus that Christ is the Angel or Head of the Churches of God. Each of the subordinate churches, of which there are seven represented by seven candlesticks, is fed by the oil of the spirit (Zech. 4:2). The seven churches: Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia and Laodicea are governed by a subordinate Angel to whom the letters of Revelation 2 and 3 are addressed. 1Timothy 5:21 appears also to allude to the Angels of the Churches where Paul says:

In the presence of the elect angels I charge you to keep these rules without favour doing nothing from partiality.


It is certain that Paul here includes the loyal angels as part of the elect and thus the promise extends to a structure of both humans and angels.


The early patristic writers hold that there were angels in charge of the churches. These included Origen (Hom. on Luke 13:23), Gregory of Nazianzus (Or. 42), Basil (Comm. on Isa. 1:46), Gregory of Elvira (Tract.16), Hyppolytus (De Antichr. 59), and Eusebius (Comm. on Ps. 47:50). For details see also Jean Danielou, The Angels and their Mission, (Westminster, Md, Newman Press, 1953) and Wink, T, The Powers, Vol. 2: ‘Unmasking The Powers’ (Fortress Press, Philadelphia, 1987 p. 192). Unfortunately, patristic theology had become so interlinked with the Mysteries that by the time of Gregory of Nazianzus the cosmology had extended to include the soul doctrine with a heavenly New Jerusalem (Or. 32 and also Basil Ep. 2.238).

(cf. Judgment of the Demons (No. 080)).


Chapter Six ends the epistle on the clear theological note of the Unitarian structure of the faith with the mediator between man and God as Jesus Christ.  The reality was that the theological structure of the Mystery and Sun cults was penetrating the Church of God with its Antinomianism attacks on the Covenant of God (No. 096D); cf. also Antinomian Destruction of Christianity by Misuse of Scripture (No. 164C); Antinomian Attacks on the Law of God (No. 164D); Antinomian Denial of Baptism (No. 164E), and Ditheism (No. 076B). 


When this text was written Paul had witnessed the theological attacks of the Diethist structure of the god Attis and the consort mother goddess Cybele who had penetrated Rome from the Middle East. Baal worship had also penetrated the system from the Middle East under the Mother goddess cult as Ashtoreth, Ishtar or Easter with Attis, Adonis and Osiris in Egypt (cf. Origins of Christmas and Easter (No. 235) and Binitarianism and Trinitarianism (No. 076)).


It is in this chapter that we see that there is One True God the Father and who alone is immortal.  He will send Jesus Christ.  Let all who serve him count their own masters as worthy of all honour so that the name of God and His Doctrine be not blasphemed. He gave us the Law though his servant Jesus Christ at Sinai and in Israel as the son of God (cf. 1Cor 10:4 and Acts 7:30-43).


By the faith we are to hold on to the faith once delivered and avoid all profane babblings.


Chapter 6

1Let all who are under the yoke of slavery regard their masters as worthy of all honor, so that the name of God and the teaching may not be defamed. 2Those who have believing masters must not be disrespectful on the ground that they are brethren; rather they must serve all the better since those who benefit by their service are believers and beloved. Teach and urge these duties. 3If any one teaches otherwise and does not agree with the sound words of our Lord Jesus Christ and the teaching which accords with godliness, 4he is puffed up with conceit, he knows nothing; he has a morbid craving for controversy and for disputes about words, which produce envy, dissension, slander, base suspicions, 5and wrangling among men who are depraved in mind and bereft of the truth, imagining that godliness is a means of gain. 6There is great gain in godliness with contentment; 7for we brought nothing into the world, and we cannot take anything out of the world; 8but if we have food and clothing, with these we shall be content. 9But those who desire to be rich fall into temptation, into a snare, into many senseless and hurtful desires that plunge men into ruin and destruction. 10For the love of money is the root of all evils; it is through this craving that some have wandered away from the faith and pierced their hearts with many pangs. 11But as for you, man of God, shun all this; aim at righteousness, godliness, faith, love, steadfastness, gentleness. 12Fight the good fight of the faith; take hold of the eternal life to which you were called when you made the good confession in the presence of many witnesses. 13In the presence of God who gives life to all things, and of Christ Jesus who in his testimony before Pontius Pilate made the good confession, 14I charge you to keep the commandment unstained and free from reproach until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ; 15and this will be made manifest at the proper time by the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords, 16who alone has immortality and dwells in unapproachable light, whom no man has ever seen or can see. To him be honor and eternal dominion. Amen. 17As for the rich in this world, charge them not to be haughty, nor to set their hopes on uncertain riches but on God who richly furnishes us with everything to enjoy. 18They are to do good, to be rich in good deeds, liberal and generous, 19thus laying up for themselves a good foundation for the future, so that they may take hold of the life which is life indeed. 20O Timothy, guard what has been entrusted to you. Avoid the godless chatter and contradictions of what is falsely called knowledge, 21for by professing it some have missed the mark as regards the faith. Grace be with you.  (RSV)


The True God is the One True God and is not Jesus Christ whom He sent. No man has ever seen Him nor ever can see Him (Jn. 1:18). Only He is immortal. He is visible only in the Spirit.


Note here that it is God who gives life to all things. He is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of Kings and Lord of Lords. He alone has immortality. Hence, He alone gives life to all things. Thus He alone gave life to Christ.


To assert that Christ is co-eternal strikes at the heart of the sovereignty of the One True God and is polytheist. Christ ascended to become the Son of God in power from his resurrection from the dead (Rom. 1:4). The assertion, that Micah confers eternality on Christ also, seeks to deny the text at 1Timothy 6:16 which shows that only God is immortal. The assertion is a misrepresentation of Scripture.


Messiah as a King has been given the highest authority with all power to decide over the life and death of the faithful.

Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and said to them, "All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me.  (RSV)


Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.  (AV)


Messiah as a Priest has been appointed the only mediator between God and man to make atonement

John 3:17  For God sent the Son into the world, not to condemn the world, but that the world might be saved through him.  (RSV)


Hebrews 5:9  and being made perfect he became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him,  (RSV)


1Timothy 2:5  For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus,  (RSV)


Messiah as a Prophet has been given to be a teacher of righteousness to call and correct the faithful to obey the Torah (Mk. 7:6-13). (cf. Commentary on Micah (F033): Jesus the Christ, King Priest and Prophet (No. 280)).


Bullinger’s notes on 1Timothy


Chapter 1

Verse 1

apostle. App-189. See Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:1.

Jesus Christ. App-98. Most texts read "Christ Jesus".

by. App-104.

commandment. Greek. epitage. See Romans 16:26.

God. App-98.

Saviour. God is called "Saviour", here, 1 Timothy 2:3Luke 1:47Titus 1:3Titus 2:10Titus 3:4Jude 1:25, Elsewhere the title is used of the Lord Jesus Christ.

Lord. The texts omit.

Jesus Christ. The texts read "Christ. Jesus". App-98.

which is. Read "Who is".

hope, Compare vol. 1, 5, 23, 27. Titus 2:13.


Verse 2

Unto = To.

own. Greek. gesios. See 2 Corinthians 8:8.

son. App-108.

in. App-104.

faith. App-110.

Grace, mercy, and peace. This salutation is peculiar to the Epistles to Timothy and Titus.

Grace. App-184. from. App-104.

Father. App-98.

Jesus Christ. Read "Christ Jesus".

Lord. App-98.


Verse 3

besought. App-134.

abide. Greek. prosmeno See Acts 11:23.

at. App-104.

into. App-104.

that = in order that. Greek. hina

charge. Greek. parangello. See Acts 1:4.

some, App-124.

that they, &c. = not (App-105) to teach otherwise (Greek. heterodidaskaleo. Only here and 1 Timothy 6:3).


Verse 4

Neither. Greek. mede.

fables. Greek. muthos. Occurs also 1 Timothy 4:72 Timothy 4:4Titus 1:142 Peter 1:16.

endless. Greek. aperantos. App-151.

genealogies. Greek. genealogia Only here and Titus 3:9. Referring to the list of emanations of AEONS according to the Gnostics.

questions. Greek. zetesis. See Acts 25:20. All the occ, of the word show what questions occupy the natural mind.

godly edifying = dispensation (Gn oikonomia1 Corinthians 9:17) of God (1 Timothy 1:1). A few texts read oikodome, as 1 Corinthians 14:31 Corinthians 14:51 Corinthians 14:12.


Verse 5

commandment. Greek. perengelia. See Acts 5:28.

charity. App-135.

out of. App-104, good conscience. See Acts 23:1.

unfeigned. Greek. anupokritos. See Romans 12:9.


Verse 6

having swerved. Greek. astocheo. Elsewhere, 1 Timothy 6:212 Timothy 2:18.

have. Omit,

turned aside. Greek. ektrepowai. Elsewhere, 5, 15; 1 Timothy 6:202 Timothy 4:4Hebrews 12:13.

unto. App-104.

vain jangling. Greek. mataiologia. Only here. Compare Titus 1:10.


Verse 7

Desiring. App-102.

teachers of the law. Greek. nomodidaskalos. See Luke 5:17.

understanding, &c, There are double negatives in this phrase, me at the beginning, and mete, mete, neither, nor.

whereof = concerning (App-104.) what.

affirm. Greek. diabebaioomai. Only here and Titus 3:8.


Verse 8

know. App-132.

if, App-118.

a man. Greek. tis. App-123.

lawfully. Gr nomimos Only here and 2 Timothy 2:5.


Verse 9

not. App-105.

made = appointed.

righteous. App-191.

lawless. App-128.

disobedient = not under subjection,

undisciplined. Greek. anupotaktos. Here; Titus 1:6Titus 1:10Hebrews 2:8.

ungodly. Greek. asebes See Romans 4:5.

sinners. Greek. hamartalos. Compare App-128.

unholy. Greek. anosios Here and 2 Timothy 3:2. Contrast Acts 2:21.

profane. Gr bebelos. Here, 1 Timothy 4:41 Timothy 6:202 Timothy 2:16Hebrews 12:16.

murderers, &c. Greek. patraloas . . . metratoas. Only here.

man Greek. androphones. Only here.


Verse 10

them that, &c. Greek. arsenokoites. See 1 Corinthians 6:9,

men. Greek. andropodistes. Only here.

perjured persons. Greek. epiorkos. Only here

if App-118.

there be. Omit

other. App-124.

that. Omit.

sound. Greek. hugiaino, See Luke 5:31.


Verse 11

According to. App-104.

glorious gospel = gospel (App-140) of the glory (p. 1511). Compare 2 Corinthians 4:4.

blessed. Only in this epistle is "blessed" (or happy), Greek. makarios, applied to God, here and 1 Timothy 6:15.

which, &c. = with which I was entrusted. App-150.


Verse 12

And. Omit.

thank. Literally I have thanks (App-184.) to.

Christ Jesus. App-98.

bath. Omit.

enabled. Greek. endanamoe. See Acts 9:22.

faithful App-160.

ministry. App-190.


Verse 13

persecutor. Greek. dioktes. Only here.

injurious = an insulter. Greek. hubristes. Only here and Romans 1:30.

obtained mercy. Compare 1 Corinthians 1:262 Corinthians 4:1.

ignorantly = not knowing. Compare Luke 23:34Acts 3:17.Verse 14

was exceeding, &c. = abounded over all. Greek. husperpleonazo. Only here. Compare Romans 5:20.

with. App-104.

love. Same as "charity"1 Timothy 1:5.


Verse 15

saying. App-121. This is the first of five "faithful sayings" in the Pastoral Epistles. Compare 1 Timothy 3:11 Timothy 4:92 Timothy 2:11Titus 3:8, Compare Revelation 21:5Revelation 22:6.

acceptation. Greek. apodoche. Only here and 1 Timothy 4:9. world. App-129.

chief. Greek. protos. Here "foremost", i.e. first in position.


Verse 16

for this cause = on account of (App-104. 1 Timothy 1:2) this.

first. See "chief"1 Timothy 1:16.

for. App-104.

pattern. Greek. hupotuposis. Only here and a Tim. 1 Timothy 1:13.

to = of.

should hereafter = are about to.

believe on. App-150

to. App-104. life. App-110.

everlasting. App-161. Paul was converted through the visible appearance of the Lord from heaven, Others will be (Zechariah 12:10).Verse 17

King eternal = King of the ages (App-151.) The some expression Occurs in the Greek text of Tobit 13.610, and the "God of the ages"Thes ton anionon, in Ecclesiastes 36:17. Compare Isaiah 9:6Jeremiah 10:10.

immortal. Greek. aphtharlos. See Romans 1:23. Compare, 1 Timothy 6:16.

invisible. Greek. aorates. See Romans 1:20. Compare 1 Timothy 6:16Exodus 33:20John 1:18Colossians 1:15Hebrews 11:27.

wise. The texts omit, the word having crept in from Romans 16:27.

honour and glory. These words are coupled together in Hebrews 2:7Hebrews 2:92 Peter 1:17Revelation 4:9Revelation 4:11Revelation 5:12Revelation 5:13Revelation 19:1, in describing Divine glory, and in reference to man in Romans 2:7Romans 2:10Revelation 21:24Revelation 21:26.

glory. See p. 1511.

for ever and ever. App-151.


Verse 18

charge. Same as "commandment"1 Timothy 1:5.

commit. Greek. paratithemi. See Acts 17:3.

which went before = going before. Compare 1 Timothy 4:14.

on. App-104. by, App-104.

war. Greek. strateuomai. See 1 Corinthians 9:7.

a = the.

warfare. Greek. strateia. Only here and 2 Corinthians 10:4. This clause exhibits the Figs, Paronomasia and Polyptoton, App-6. Greek. strateue strateian,


Verse 19

put away = thrust away. Greek. apdtheemai. See Acts 7:27.

concerning. App-104.

faith = the faith (1 Timothy 1:2).

have. Omit,

made shipwreck. Greek. nauageo. Only here and 2 Corinthians 11:25.


Verse 20

Hymenaeus. Compare 2 Timothy 2:172 Timothy 2:18.

Alexander, Compare 2 Timothy 4:142 Timothy 4:15.

have. Omit.

delivered. Greek. paradidomi. See John 19:30.

Satan. Compare e Cor. 1 Timothy 5:5.

not. App-106. as in 1 Timothy 1:7.


Chapter 2

Verse 1

exhort. App-134.

supplications. App-134.

prayers. App-134.

intercessions. App-134.

giving of thanks. Greek. eucharistia. See Acts 24:3.

for. App-104.

men. App-123.


Verse 2

in. App-104.

authority. Greek. huperoche. See 1 Corinthians 2:1.

that = in

order that. Greek. hina.

lead. Greek. diago, Only here and Titus 3:3.

quiet. Gt. eremos. Only here.

peaceable. Greek. hesuchios. Only here and 1 Peter 3:4.

life. App-170.

godliness. Greek. eusebeia. See Acts 3:13.

honesty = gravity. Greek. semnotes. Only here, 1 Timothy 3:4, and Titus 2:7. Compare 1 Timothy 3:8.


Verse 3

acceptable. Greek. apodektos. Only here and 1 Timothy 5:4. God. App-98.

Saviour. See 1 Timothy 1:1.


Verse 4

will = wills. App-102.

have . . . to be = that . . . should be.

to. Omit.

unto. App-104.

knowlocge. App-132.


Verse 5

Mediator. Greek. mesistrs. See Galatians 1:3Galatians 1:19.

between = of.

Christ Jesus. App-98.


Verse 6

ransom. Greek. antilutron. Only here. Compare Matthew 20:28Mark 10:45 (lutron). Titus 2:14Hebrews 9:12.

to be testified = the testimony.

due time = its own seasons (App-196). Compare Galatians 1:4Galatians 1:4.


Verse 7

Whereunto = For (Greek. eis) which.

ordained = appointed. Same word in 1 Timothy 1:12 (putting).

preacher. App-121.

apostle. App-189.

Christ. App-98. but the texts omit "in Christ not". App-106. Compare Romans 9:12 Corinthians 11:31Galatians 1:1Galatians 1:20.

faith. App-160.

verity = truth.


Verse 8

will. App-102.

men = the men, i, e. husbands. App-123.

pray. App-134.

every where = in (Greek. en) every place.

holy. Greek. heal. See Acts 2:27.

doubting = reasoning or disputing.


Verse 9

In like manner = Likewise.

also. The texts omit.

women. The whole context shows that wives are in the apostle"s mind. See verses: 1 Timothy 2:12-15.

adorn. Greek. kosmee. Five times in the Gospels. Titus 2:101 Peter 3:5Revelation 21:2Revelation 21:19.

modest = becoming, orderly. Greek. kosmios. Only here and 1 Timothy 3:2.

apparel. Greek. kalaelole. Only here. Compare Mark 12:38.

with. App-104.

shamefacedness = shamefastness, as originally in AUTHORIZED VERSION 1611. Greek. aidos. Only here and Hebrews 12:28,

sobriety. Greek. sophrosune. See Acts 26:25. Compare 2 Timothy 1:7Titus 2:4Titus 2:12.

not, App-103.

with. App-104.

broiled hair = plaits, or braids. Greek. plegma. Only here. Compare 1 Peter 3:3.

costly. Greek. poluteles. Elsewhere, Mark 14:31 Peter 3:4.


Verse 10

godliness. Greek. theosebeia. Only here.

with. App-104. 1 Timothy 2:1,


Verse 11

subjection. Greek. hupotage. See 1 Corinthians 14:342 Corinthians 9:13.


Verse 12

nor. Greek. oude,

usurp authority. Greek. authenteo. Only here.


Verse 13

formed. Greek. plasso. Only here and Romans 9:20.


Verse 14

deceived. Greek. apateo. See Ephesians 5:6.

being deceived. Greek. apatao, but the texts read exapatao, as in 2 Corinthians 11:3 (thoroughly deceived, or as we say, "taken in. ")

was = came to be.

transgression. Greek. parabasis. Compare App-128.


Verse 15

Notwithstanding = But.

in = through. App-104, 1 Timothy 2:1,

childbearing = the childbearing. Greek. teknogonia. Only here.

if. App-118.1. b.

continue. Greek. meno. See p. 1511.

charity = love, as in 1 Timothy 1:6.

holiness. Greek. hagiasmos. See Romans 6:19.


Chapter 3

Verse 1

true = faithful. App-150. See 1 Timothy 1:16.

saying. App-121.

If a man = lf (App-118. a)

any one (App-123.)

desire. Greek. oregomai, Here, 1 Timothy 6:10, Hebrews 11:16.

the office, &c. Greek. episkepe. See Acts 1:20.

desireth. Greek. epithemeo, as Hebrews 6:11.


Verse 2

bishop. Greek. episkopos. See Acts 20:28.

blameless. Greek. anepileptos. Only here, 1 Timothy 5:7; 1 Timothy 6:14.


vigilant = sober. Greek. nephalcos. Here, 1 Timothy 3:1, 1 Timothy 2:2.

sober, Greek. sophron. Here, Titus 1:8; Titus 2:2, Titus 2:5. Compare 1 Timothy 2:9, 1 Timothy 2:15, 2 Timothy 1:7. Titus 2:4, Titus 2:6, Titus 2:12.

of good behaviour. Greek. kosmios. See 1 Timothy 2:9.

given to hospitality. Greek. philoxenos Here; Titus 1:8. 1 Peter 4:9. Compare Romans 12:13.

apt to teach. Greek. didaktikos. Here and 2 Timothy 2:24.


Verse 3

Not. App-105.

given to wine. Greek. paroinos. Here and Titus 1:7,

no striker = not (Greek. me) a striker (Greek. plektes. Here and Titus 1:7).

not greedy, &c. The texts omit, the idea being expressed at the and of the verse.

patient. Greek. epieikes. See Philippians 1:4, Philippians 1:5,

not a brawler = not contentious. Greek. amachos. Here and Titus 3:2.

not covetous = not loving money. Greek. aphilarguros. Here and Hebrews 13:5,


Verse 4

ruleth. Greek.

proistemi. See Romans 12:8.

children. App-108.

in. Greek. en App-104.

subjection. See 1 Timothy 2:11, with. App-104.

gravity. See "honesty", 1 Timothy 2:2.


Verse 5

know. App-132.

not. App-105.

take care of, Greek. epimeleomai. Only here and Luke 10:34, Luke 10:35,

church. App-186.

God, App-98.


Verse 6

novice. Greek. neophutos. Only here.

lest = in order

that (Greek. hind). not (Greek. me).

lifted up, &c. = puffed up. Greek. tuphoomai. Here, 1 Timothy 6:4. 2 Timothy 3:4. The noun tuphos means smoke. Compare Matthew 12:20,

into. App-104.

condemnation. App-177.


Verse 7

Moreover = But.

report = testimony. Add "Also". of. App-104.

reproach. Greek. oneidissmos. See Romans 15:3.

snare. Greek. pagis. Here, 1 Timothy 6:19. Luke 21:25. Romans 11:9. 2 Timothy 2:6.


Verse 8

deacons. App-100.

grave. Greek. senreos, Seo Philippians 1:4, Philippians 1:8. doubletongued. Greek. diiodos. Only here.

greedy, &c. (Greek. aischroksedes. Here and Titus 1:7. Compare 1 Peter 5:2.


Verse 9

mystery. App-193.

faith. App-160.


Verse 10

proved = tested.

use, &c. = serve. App-190.

blameless. Greek. anenkletos. See 1 Corinthians 1:8.


Verse 11

slanderers. Greek. diabolos, adjective sober. Same as "vigilant", 1 Timothy 3:2.

faithful. Same as "true", 1 Timothy 3:1.


Verse 13

have. Omit.

purchase. Greek. peripoieoleai. See Acts 20:28.

degree. Greek. bathmos. Only here.

boldness. Greek. parrhesia. Trnnsl. "freely", in Acts 2:29.

Christ Jesus. App-98.


Verse 14

unto. = to.

unto. App-104.

Verse 15

if. App-118.

tarry long = delay. Greek. braduno. Here and 2 Peter 3:9.

that = in order that. Greek. Heir,

behave thyself. Greek. anastrepho. See 2 Corinthians 1:12. An alternative reading, as Revised Version, "how men ought to behave themselves".

pillar. Greek. stulos. See Galatians 1:2, Galatians 1:9.

ground Greek. hedraiomo Only here.


Verse 16

without controversy = confessedly. Greek. homologoumenos. Only here.

great. Emph.

godliness. See 1 Timothy 2:2.

God. The Revised Version prints "He Who", and adds in margin, "Theos (God) rests on no sufficient evidence". The probability is that the original rending was ho (which), with the Syric and all the Latin Versions, to agree withmusterion (neut.) The Greek uncial being O, some scribe added the letter s, making OC (He Who), which ho thought made better sense. Later another put a ark in this O, making the word OC, the contraction for OEOC, God. This mark in Codex A, in the British Museum, is said by some to be in different ink.

was manifest. App-106.

the. Omit.

justified. App-191.

Spirit. App-101.

seen. App-106.

preached. App-121.

unto = among. Greek. en. App-104.

believed on. App-150.

world. App-129.

received up. Same word as Mark 16:19. Acts 1:2, Acts 1:11, Acts 1:22.

Into = in. Greek. en.

glory, See p. 1611.


Chapter 4

Verse 1

Spirit. App-101.

expressly = in express words. Greek. rhetos. Only here. in. App-104.

latter. Greek. husteros, Only here as adjective.

times = seasons. See Genesis 49:1. See App-196.

some. App-12.4.

depart = apostatise. Greek. aphistemi.

faith. App-150.

seducing. Greek. planos. See 2 Corinthians 6:8. spirits. App-101.

doctrines = teachings.

devils = demons.


Verse 2

Speaking, &c. = By (Greek. en) the hypocrisy of liars (Greek. pseudologos. Only here).

having, &c. = having been seared with a hot iron as to their own conscience.

seared, &c. Greek. kauteriazomai, Only here.


Verse 3

Forbidding to marry. This has been taken as indicating the Church of Rome, but that church only enjoins the celibacy of priests and monks and nuns. Spiritism, or the teaching of demons, enjoins being united only to the "spiritual affinity" and has wrecked many homes.

abstain. Greek. apechomoi. See Acts 16:20.

meats = efoods. Spiritist teaching is that animal food is unfavourable to the development of mediumistic power. The permission of Genesis 9:3 is significant, coming immediately after the outbreak of 1 Timothy 6:1-4.

God. App-98.

hath. Omit.

to be received = for (Greek. eis) reception. Greek. metalepsis, Only here.

with. App-104.

thanksgiving. See 1 Timothy 2:1.

of, &c, = by believers. App-150.

know = have (fully) known. App-132.


Verse 4

creature. Greek. ktisma. Here; James 1:18. Revelation 6:13; Revelation 8:9.

nothing. Greek. oudeis.

to be refused. Greek. apobletos. Only here. Compare Hebrews 10:35.

if it be = - being.


Verse 5

by. App-104. 1 Timothy 4:1.

word. App-121.,

prayer. App-134.


Verse 6

If thou put, &c. Literally Putting . . . in remembrance. Greek. hupotithemi. Only here and Romans 16:4.

minister. App-190.

Jesus Christ, App-98. The texts read "Christ Jesus" (XII).

nourished up. Greek. entrephomai. Only here.

whereunto = to which.

attained. Literally followed up. Greek. parakoloutheo. Here; Mark 16:17. Luke 1:3. 2 Timothy 3:10.


Verse 7

refuse. Greek. paraiteomai. See Acts 25:11.

profane = the profane. Referring to 1 Timothy 1:4. See 1 Timothy 1:9,

old wives". Greek. graodes. Only here.

fables. See 1 Timothy 1:4.

exercise. Greek. gumnazo. Here; Hebrews 6:14; Hebrews 12:11. 2 Peter 2:14.

unto. App-104.

godliness. See 1 Timothy 2:2.


Verse 8

exercise. Greek. gunmasia. Only here.

profiteth, is profitable. Greek. ophelimos. Here; 2 Timothy 3:16. Titus 3:8.

little . onto (ue 1 Timothy 4:7) a, little (matter).

life. App-170.


Verse 9

faithful, &c. See 1 Timothy 1:15.

and. Omit.

acceptation. See 1 Timothy 1:15.


Verse 10

therefore = for (Greek. eis) this.

suffer reproach = are reviled. The texts read "strive", as in 1 Corinthians 9:25.

trust = have hoped.

in. App-104.

living God. See Acts 14:15.

Saviour. See 1 Timothy 1:1.

all men. When our first perents incurred the penalty of immediate judicial death, the race would have been extinguished, had not God interposed, before dealing with the culprits, with the promise of the Redeemer, and so suspending the execution of the sentence denounced.

men. App-123.

specially. Occurs in the N.T. twelve times. Rendered "specially", "especially "(nine); "most of all" (Acts 20:36); "chiefly" (Philippians 1:4, Philippians 1:22. 2 Peter 2:10).

those that believe = the believing. App-150.


Verse 11

command. See Acts 1:4. Compare 1 Timothy 1:3.


Verse 12

no man. Greek. medeis.

youth. See Acts 26:4.

be = become,

example. Greek. tupos. See John 20:25.

believers. Same as "those that believe", 1 Timothy 4:10.

conversation. Greek. anastrophe. See Galatians 1:1, Galatians 1:13.

charity. See 1 Timothy 1:5.

in spirit. The texts omit.

purity. Greek. hagneia. Only here and 1 Timothy 5:2.


Verse 13

give attendance = take heed, as 1 Timothy 4:1 (giving heed).

reading. See Acts 13:15.

exhortation. Greek. paraklesis. See Acts 22:5.

doctrine = teaching.


Verse 14

Neglect. Greek. ameleo. Here; Matthew 22:5. Hebrews 2:3; Hebrews 2:8, Hebrews 2:9; 2 Peter 1:12.

not. App-105.

gift. App-184.

prophecy. Compare 1 Timothy 1:18.

presbytery. See Acts 22:5.


Verse 15

Meditate upon. Greek. meletao. See Acts 4:25.

give, &c. Lit, be in them, i.e. occupied in them,

to. App-104.

that = in order that. Greek. hina,

profiting. Greek. prokope. See Philippians 1:1, Philippians 1:12.

appear = be manifest. App-106.


Verse 16

Take heed. Greek. epecho. See Acts 3:5.

unto = to, continue, Greek. epimend. See Acts 10:48.

in. Omit.

both save = save both.


Chapter 5

Verse 1

Rebuke. Greek. epiplesso. Only here.

not. App-106.

elder. App-189.

intreat. Same as "exhort", 1 Timothy 2:1 and 1 Timothy 6:2.


Verse 2

elder women. Feminine of "elder", 1 Timothy 5:1.

with. App-104.

purity See 1 Timothy 4:12.


Verse 3

indeed. See John 8:36.


Verse 4

if. App-118.2. a.

any. App-123.

children. App-108.

nephews = grandchildren or other descendants. Greek. ekgonos. Only here. Shakespeare in Othello uses the word nephews for grandchildren,

show piety at home = treat reverently (Greek. eusebeo. Only here and Acts 17:23) their own household.

requite = return recompenses (Greek. amoibe. Only here) to.

parents. Greek. progonos. Only here and a Tim. 1 Timothy 1:3.

acceptable. Greek. apodektos. Only here and 1 Timothy 2:3.

before = in the sight of.

God. App-98.


Verse 5

desolate. Greek. monoomai. Only here.

trusteth = has hoped. Implying continued hoping. in. App-104.

oontinueth. Greek. prosmeno. See 1 Timothy 1:3. supplications. App-134.

prayers. App-134.


Verse 6

liveth in pleasure. Greek. spatalab. Only here and James 5:6.

liveth. See App-170.

Verse 7give in charge. Greek. parangello. See Acts 1:4. Compare 1 Timothy 1:3; 1 Timothy 4:11; 1 Timothy 6:13, 1 Timothy 6:17.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

blameless. See 1 Timothy 3:2.


Verse 8

provide. Greek. pronoeo. See Romans 12:17.

not. App-106.

those, &c. Greek. oikeios. See Galatians 1:6, Galatians 1:10.

own. Omit.

faith. App-150.

infidel = unbeliever. Greek. apistos. See 1 Corinthians 6:6;


Verse 9

taken, &c. = enrolled. Greek. katalegomai. Only here. under less than. Greek. elasson, See Romans 9:11.

man. App-123.


Verse 10

Well reported of = borne witness to.

for. App-104.

brought up, &c. Greek. teknotropheo. Only here. lodged strangers. Greek. xendocheo. Only here.

saints. See Acts 9:13.

relieved. Greek. eparkeo. Only been and 1 Timothy 5:16.

afflicted. Greek. thlibo. See a Cor 1 Timothy 1:6.

diligently followed. Greek. epakoloutheo. Here, 1 Timothy 5:24. Mark 16:20. 1 Peter 2:21.


Verse 11

refuse. See 1 Timothy 4:7.

begun to wax wanton = grown wanton. Greek. katastreniaso. Only here.

Christ. App-98.

will. App-102.


Verse 12

damnation = judgment. App-177.

cast off. Greek. atheteo. See John 12:48.


Verse 13

idle. Greek. (argos. See Matthew 12:36. Compare the verb ketargeo. Luke 13:7. Add "also".

wandering about. Greek. pericrct omoi. See Acts 19:13.

tattlers. Greek. phletaros. Only here. The verb 3 John 1:10.

busybodies Greek. periergos. See Acts 19:19.

speaking. App-121.


Verse 14

will. App-102.3.

bear children. Greek. tekatogoneo. Only here. Compare 1 Timothy 2:15.

guide the house. Greek. oikodespoteo. Only here.

none. Greek. medeis.

occasion. Greek. aphorme, See Romans 7:8.

to speak reproachfully. Literally for the sake of (Greek. charin, occasion of charis, used as a preposition) reviling (Greek. loidoria Here and 1 Peter 3:9. Compare John 9:28. Acts 23:4. 1 Corinthians 4:12. 1 Peter 2:23).


Verse 15

some. App-124.

turred aside. See 1 Timothy 1:6.


Verse 16

man or woman that belioveth, &c. The texts read "believing (woman) . . . let her:" "believing" being feminine of App-150.

church. App-186.

charged = burdened. Greek. bareo. See 2 Corinthians 1:8.


Verse 17

rule. Seo 1 Timothy 3:4.

be counted worthy. Greek. axioo. See Acts 15:38.

double. Greek. diplous. Only here; Matthew 23:15 (compar.) Revelation 18:6.

in, App-104.

word. App-121.


Verse 18

muzzle. Greek. phimoo. See Luke 4:35.

treadeth out, &c. See 1 Corinthians 9:9, where the same quotation occurs. The latter part of the verse is from Matthew 10:10, &c,

reward = pay. Greek. misthos.


Verse 19

Against. App-104.

receive. Greek. paradechomai. See Acts 16:21.

accusation. Greek. kategoria. Here; Luke 6:7. John 18:29, Titus 1:6,

but. See 1 Corinthians 14:5 (except).

before. App-104.

two, &c. Compare Deuteronomy 19:15, Matthew 18:16. 2 Corinthians 13:1,


Verse 20

sin. App-128.

rebuke. Greek. elencho, See t Cor. 1 Timothy 14:21.

others. App-124.

fearn = have fear.


Verse 21

charge. Greek. diamarturomai. See Acts 2:40.

Lord. The texts omit.

Jesus Christ. The texts read "Christ Jeans". App-98. X11.

observe = guard.

without = apart from.

preferring . . . another = prejudgment, prejudice. Greek. prokrima. Only here.

nothing. Greek. medeis, as in or 1 Timothy 14:22.

by. App-104.

partiality. Literally inclining towards. Greek. prosklisis. Only here.


Verse 22

suddenly = hastily, i.e. without sufficient testing.

no man = no one. Greek. medeis. See 1 Timothy 5:21.

neither. Greek. mede.

other men"s. App-124.

sins. At. 128.1.

pure. Greek. hagnos. See 2 Corinthians 7:11. Not as the word is used to-day, but as clear from aiding in sending unfit men into the ministry, from which all the churches are suffering at this hour. Compare Jude 1:11.


Verse 23

Drink. . . water. Greek. hudropoteo. Only here.

no longer. Greek. meketi.

for . . . sake. App-104. 1 Timothy 5:2.

stomach"s. Greek. stomachos. Only here.

often = frequent. Greek. puknos. See Luke 5:33.

Verse 24

men"s. App-123.

open beforehand. Greek. prodelos. Only here, 1 Timothy 5:20, and Hebrews 7:14.

going before. See 1 Timothy 1:18.

to. App-104.

judgment. App-177. Some are notoriously unfit; the unfitness of others is not manifest till they are tested.


Verse 25

also. Should follow works.

manifest beforehand. Same as "open beforehand",

otherwise. Greek. adds. Only here.

cannot = are not (App-105) able to.


Chapter 6

Verse 1

servants. App-190.

under. App-104.

masters. App-98.

that in order that. Greek. hina. God. App-98.

not. App-105.


Verse 2

believing. App-130.

do . . . service. App-130.

faithful. Some as "believing".

beloved. App-136.

partakers = those who are partaking. Greek. antilambanomai. See Acts 20:35.

benefit = good work. Greek. euergesia. See Acts 4:9,

exhort. App-134.


Verse 3

If App-118. a,

any man = any one. App-123.

teach otherwise. See 1 Timothy 1:3.

wholesome, Same as "sound", 1 Timothy 1:10.

words. App-121.10.

even the words = those.

Lord. App-98.

Jesus Christ. App-99.

according to. App-104.

godliness. See 1 Timothy 2:2.


Verse 4

proud = puffed up. See 1 Timothy 3:6.

knowing. App-132.

nothing. Greek. medeis.

doting = sick, or diseased. Greek. noseo. Only here. Compare Matthew 4:24.

about. App-104.

questions. See 1 Timothy 1:4.

strifes, &c. Greek. logonaaettia. Only here. The verb in 2 Timothy 2:14.

whereof = out of (App-104.) which.

surmisings, Greek. huponaia. Only here.


Verse 5

Perverse disputings. Greek. paradiatribe. Only here. The texts read diaparatribe.

men. App-123.

of corrupt minds = corrupted (Greek. diophtheiro. See 2 Corinthians 4:16) as to their mind,

destitute = deprived. Greek. opostereo. See 1 Corinthians 6:7.

gain, &c. Read "godliness is a way of gain".

gain. Greek. porismos. Here and 1 Timothy 6:6.

from. App-104.

withdraw thyself. Same as "depart", 1 Timothy 4:1, but the texts omit "from such", &c.


Verse 6

with. Greek. meta. App-104.

contentment. Greek. autarkeia. See 2 Corinthians 9:8 - Compare Philippians 1:4, Philippians 1:11.


Verse 7

nothing. Greek. oudeis.

into. App-104.

world. App-129.

and it is certain. Read "neither" (Greek. oude). This makes with the second ouden a double negative.

certain. The texts omit.


Verse 8

food = nourishment. Greek. diatrophe. Only here.

raiment = covering, perhaps including shelter. Greek. skepasma, Only here.

content. Same word as 2 Corinthians 12:9 (sufficient). Hebrews 13:5.


Verse 9

will. App-102.

fall, &c. Compare 1 Timothy 3:6, 1 Timothy 3:7.

snare. See 1 Timothy 3:7.

foolish. Greek. enoetos. See Romans 1:14.

hurtful. Greek. blaberos. Only here.

drown. Greek. bulhizo. Only here and Luke 5:7.

in. App-104,

destruction. Greek. olethros, See 1 Corinthians 5:5.

perdition. See John 17:12.


Verse 10

love of money. Greek. philarguria. Only here. Compare 2 Timothy 3:2.

the = a.

all, &c. = all the evils.

evil. App-128.

some. App-124.

coveted after. See 1 Timothy 3:1.

have erred = were seduced. Greek. apoplanao. Only here and Mark 13:22.

faith. App-160.

pierced . . . through. Greek. peripeiro. Only here.

with = by. Dative case.

sorrows = pangs. Greek. odune. Only here and Romans 9:3.


Verse 11

righteousness. App-191.

love. App-135.

meekness. See 1 Corinthians 4:21.


Verse 12

Fight. Greek. agonizomai. See Luke 13:24.

fight. Greek. agon. See Philippians 1:30. Figure of speech Paronomasia. App-6.

eternal. App-151.

life. App-170.

whereunto = unto (App-104.) which.

hast. Omit.

professed = confessed. Greek. homologeo. Occurs twenty-three times; seventeen times "confess", three times "profess" make confession", "promise", "give thanks", once each.

a = the.

profession = confession. Greek. homologia. See 2 Corinthians 9:13. Figure of speech Hyperbaton. App-6.

before = in the sight of.


Verse 13

give . . . charge. See 1 Timothy 1:3.

in the sight of = "before", as above.

quickeneth. See Romans 4:17, The texts read zoogoneo, preserve alive.

Christ Jesus. App-98.

before. App-104.

confession. Same as "profession", 1 Timothy 6:12.


Verse 14

without spot = unspotted, Greek. aspilos. Here; James 1:27. 1 Peter 1:19. 2 Peter 3:14.

unrebukeable. Same as "blameless", 1 Timothy 3:2; 1 Timothy 5:7.

appearing. App-106.


Verse 15

Which. Refers to "appearing".

His = His own.

times = seasons. Compare Acts 1:7. See App-195.

Who is. Omit,

blessed. See 1 Timothy 1:11.

Potentate. App-98.

lords. Greek. kurieuo. See Luke 22:25.


Verse 16

immortality = deathlessness. Greek. athanasia. Only here and 1 Corinthians 15:53-54.

dwelling in = inhabiting. Greek. oikeo.

the. Omit.

light. App-130.,

which, &c. = unapproachable. Greek. aprositos, Only here.

no man = no one (Greek. oudeis) of men (App-123.)

seen, see. App-133,

nor. Greek. oude. power. App-172.

everlasting. App-151. Compare 1 Timothy 6:12,


Verse 17

in. App-104.

this = the present.

world. App-129.,

highminded. Greek. hupselophroneo. Only here and Romans 11:20.

nor. Greek. mede

trust = set their hope.

in = upon. App-104.

uncertain = the uncertainty of. (Greek. adelotes. Only here.

in. The texts read App-104.

the living. The texts omit,

giveth = providoth. See 1 Timothy 1:4 (minister).

richly. See Colossians 3:16.

to enjoy = for (App-104.)

enjoyment. Greek. apelausis. Here and Hebrews 11:25.


Verse 18

do good. Greek. agathoergeo. Only here.

ready to distribute. Greek. eumetadotos. Only here,

willing to communicate. Greek. koinonikos. Only here. "Sociable" (Authorized Version m.)


Verse 19

Laying up, &c. Greek. apotliesairizo. Only here.

against. App-104.

lay hold, &c. Compare 1 Timothy 6:12.

eternal life. The texts read, "the life that is life indeed": for ainios reading ontos. Compare 1 Timothy 5:3.


Verse 20

keep = guard, as in 1 Timothy 5:21 (observe). Compare 2 Timothy 1:12, 2 Timothy 1:14.

that . . . trust. Greek. parakalatheke. Only here and 2 Timothy 1:14. But the texts read paratheke in both places, thus agreeing with 2 Timothy 1:14. Both words mean "deposit". The deposit entrusted to Timothy was the teaching regarding the Mystery (1 Timothy 3:16).

avoiding = turning aside from. See 1 Timothy 1:5; 1 Timothy 1:10.

profane. Greek. bebelos. See 1 Timothy 1:9.

and. Omit.

vain babblings. Greek. kenophdnirs. Only here and 2 Timothy 2:16.

oppositions. Greek. antithesis. Only here.

science. App-132.

falsely so called. Greek. pseudonumos. Only here. There is much science (knowledge) which does not deserve the name, being only speculation.


Verse 21
have. Omit.

erred. See 1 Timothy 1:6 (swerved).

concerning. App-104.

Grace. App-184.

thee. The texts read "you".

Amen. Omit.