Christian Churches of God
Sons of Japheth Part II:
(Edition 1.0 20120323-20120323)
This paper deals with the Sons of Gomer who inherited the Northern areas and settled in Europe to Eurasia.
Sons of Japheth Part II: Gomer
The first portion of Japheth in Eurasia was given to Gomer and the area to the north (termed inner north) of that which was given to the sons of Magog who were the Scythians. Herodotus also places the Scythians in this area (Hist. 4).
The sons of Gomer also included the sons of Togarmah and these were described as inhabiting the uttermost parts, or the recesses, of the North (Ezek. 38:6). We shall identify these people and the root division of the people and see just how numerous and widespread these people really are in Asia. By the time of Ezekiel they had spread over the entire north and that extended into Asia.
And so many were the countries that had the children of Japhet for their inhabitants. Of the three sons of Gomer, Aschanax founded the Aschanaxians, who are now called by the Greeks Rheginians. So did Riphath found the Ripheans, now called Paphlagonians; and Thrugramma the Thrugrammeans, who, as the Greeks resolved, were named Phrygians. (Jos. A of J, Bk. 1, ch vi. 1)
The Sons of Gomer originally inhabited Anatolia or the area of Turkey in three areas.
Aschanax or Ashkenaz founded Aschanaxians who were named by the Greeks Rheginians. These sons of Gomer all settled in their original inheritance, which was in the area of Anatolia from Troy to the Sea of Azov and the surrounding area. Ashkenaz settled in that area and became the originator of two people the Ashkenazim and the Rheginians who seem to have settled Rhegium as a colony of Chalcis ca. 720 BCE on the coast of South Italy now called Reggio di Calabria.
The sons of Riphath founded Paphlagonia.
It was on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia between Bythnia and Pontus. It was separated from Phrygia (which was later named Galatia after its reconquest by the Cimmerian Gauls) by an eastern extension of the Bithynian Olympus. Strabo says its western boundary was the river Parthenius and the eastern boundary was the river Halys.
They formed a force in the Trojan War under their leader Pylaimenes, as we see from the Iliad. His name was carried on afterwards by their rulers, as a mark of descent according to Xenophon. Though part of the Persian Empire they were never under a satrap probably because of the mountainous country. According to Herodotus they were conquered by Croesus and sent a contingent to Xerxes in 480 BCE
Thrugramma or Togarmah founded the people that came to be known as Phrygians. Essentially these people were only part of the hordes of Togarmah who went to the “uttermost parts of the North.”
Phrygia was the area in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland in what is now Turkey.
Homer says that their area was on the banks of the Sangarius River (now Sakarya River) and bounded in the East by the Halys (now Kizil) River. They were bordered on the west by Mysia and Lydia.
They settled in the area from 1200 BCE. Their Kingdom established in the Eighth century BCE was overrun by the Cimmerian reinvasion of Anatolia ca 690 BCE. After Phrygia’s subsequent conquest by its neighbour Lydia it passed into the empire of Cyrus.
The Phrygians were dedicated to the Mother goddess Cybele and the father god Sabazios. He was depicted as a Horse-god and she as a Lunar Bull and hence the origin of the Bull-slaying myths of Mithras.
The Trojan prince Paris son of Priam is depicted by the Greeks with a Phrygian cap. After Alexander’s empire collapsed it was taken by the king of Pergamon and eventually became part of the Roman Empire.
The Phrygians fought at Troy in 1064-1054 BCE and they appear to have been at least two separate kingdoms.
The Trojan kingdom was that of Wilusia and was part of the Hittite Alliance in Anatolia. The Hittie Alliance was comprised primarily of the Hatti and the Kalti and extended into Africa and north into Eurasia. The Kalti were those known as Celts and they are now primarily in Europe.
The origin of the Trojans is important and many false claims have been made concerning that origin.
The traditions concerning the survivors of Troy claim that Aeneas of one line from Dardanus founder of the Troad went to the area of Latium and founded the site of what was to become the city of Rome. These were not sons of Priam or Riphathians. Another group under Brutus or Briotus went from Troy to North Africa and met up with the Trojan group that became the Dumnonians of Devon and Cornwall and they went to and invaded Britain and subjugated the Magogite Celts in Britain. These people are the ones we regard as the Welsh and Cornish Celts of today. One tradition has them going via Latium and staying among the sons of Aeneas for a short time. They were later accompanied by the Belgiae who settled to the east of them in Southwest England and also invaded Ireland with them. The YDNA tests for these groups confirm they are R1b Celts as are the Early Romans and are all sons of Japheth.
Macgeohegan claims in his History of Ireland that Briotus came there from Ireland. It is possible that he did both. The YDNA of the Irish is predominately R1b as well and we will discuss this aspect later.
The main branch of the Francs was known as Riphathian Francs. The secondary branch was the Salien Francs. The major distinction between them was that the royal family of the Saliens could only pass through the paternal line whereas the Riphathians could be inherited through the maternal line as well.
As the name suggests, the Riphathian Francs claim descent from Riphath, son of Gomer. These people form the major element of the French people today. They came in with the Saliens from Anatolia though Europe into what is now NW Germany and Frisland and moved south into Gaul colonising the areas of central and Southern Belgium and south as far as the borders of Aquitane. The language of Aquitane was in fact related to the Basque who were sons of Tubal (see the paper Sons of Japheth Part VI: Tubal (No. 46F)).
The Kings of the Francs trace their ancestry back through Charlemagne and the kings of the Francs to their ancestors who were the Cimmerians or the Gimmery. The line goes back to Antenor I king of the Cimmerians ca 500 BCE. From there imputed lineage to the sons of Priam of Troy is claimed.
The traditions of the Cimmerians, as recorded by Nennius and Geoffry of Monmouth and others, were that they came from Troy and while the Trojan Briotus and the Cornish went to England, The sons of Hector remained in the Middle East with the Hittites Northeast of Troy and later re-occupied Troy again for a few centuries and then moved into Europe. The sons of Paris formed the tribe of the Parisii who had elements in both France and in the area in what is now Yorkshire north of Lincolnshire and the Iceni in Norfolk in Britain. The Magogite tribe of the Brigantes occupied the lands to the East in what is now Lancaster. Thus Lancaster was Magogite and Yorkshire was Riphathian Celt with the Sarmatian knights later based at the Roman Fort at Ribchester. Yorkshire later became the Norse kingdom of Yorvik (Jorvik) based at York and no doubt the tribes were assimilated. The tribe of the Parisii were in southern York towards what later became Anglia.
The Parisii also remained in France naming their capital after the hero Paris and also one of the founding cities they named Troyes.
The Belgae occupied Belgium and what are now areas of Dorset and Hampshire. The Durotriges were between them and the Dumnonii in the West and the Atrebates to the north east and the Regnenses were in Sussex and the Cantii in Kent. The Catuvellauni were to the North with the Trinovantes in the North East and the Iceni north of them in what is now Norfolk. The map of the Tribes as at 55 BCE when the Romans invaded is at Appendix A.
As explained, the Dumnoniae, Belgae and another group perhaps a composite entered Ireland from Wales.
The French that entered Britain in the Norman Conquest in 1066 bore names like Montgomerie, now Montgomery, which means literally of the Mountain of Gomer.
The Trojan consolidation of Britain is recorded as being by the sons of Heli (or Beli Mawr meaning Great Lord). The actual overlordship of Britain by this family branch occurred at the beginning of the First Century BCE. They occupied Britain for eight hundred years prior to this. During that time they had to subjugate the Magogites and then defeat the Huns at the Battle of the Humber and expel them from Britain. They then had to deal with the northern tribes of the Caledonii and the Eastern and Western Picts and the Votadini, Matae, Damnonii in Scotland and the Selgovae and Novantae and deal with the invasion of the Magogite Brigantes from Spain that entered Lancaster and then organise the Welsh and southern tribes.
It is interesting that the name of the Great Lord of the Britains is Heli, as that was the name of the father of Mariam the Mother of Christ. Heli’s grandson King Lear son of Caswallon married his cousin Penardun daughter of Lud and their son Bran the Blessed married Anna the daughter of Joseph of Arimathea asserted to be the brother of Heli father of Mariam the mother of Christ.
The town we now know as London was originally built as New Troy or Trinovantium and the occupants were the tribe of the Trinovantes. Whilst Colchester was the major city in England at the time London was still of some significance. Lud is listed as the elder brother of Caswallon who is listed as Cassivelaunos (ca 60-48 BCE) who was the ruler of the Catuvellauni and the earliest know historically identifiable British king.
Lud ruled from Trinovantium and rebuilt it naming it KaerLud after himself and it became known as Lud’s Town and hence London Town.
We can thus see that we have a powerful clan ruling from Essex through the South east. The legends also include the Welsh tribes including the Silurians as Lud had another brother who ruled a major Welsh group as Llefelys. The tale concerning them is contained in the Mabinogion.
He was buried outside the gates of London and his grave is marked as Lud’s gate or Ludgate.
He was remembered as a god in Celtic ancestor worship as Llud and as Nudd the Celtic form of Nodens.
His younger brother Caswallon was given rulership of the tribes to the west in what is now the shires and counties west of the Thames.
The Catuvellauni are not actually recorded when Julius Caesar invaded Britain. He merely mentioned their leader Cassivellaunus. It is thought that he formed the tribe from a group of smaller tribes of Belgian origin and may have been part of the Belgae. If that was the case then the subdivisions of the Belgae occupied and subjugated the South East of England from 55 BCE to 10 CE. The name may well mean Vellaunus of the Cassi. He was succeeded in 20 BCE by his son or grandson Tasciovanus who became ruler of the Catuvellauni and thus the new tribe was identified.
Caesar identifies the tribes and mentions the Cassi. He says:
'When the Trinovantes had been placed under protection and secured from all outrage at the hands of the troops, the Cenimagni, the Segontiaci, the Ancalites, the Bibroci and the Cassi sent deputations and surrendered to Caesar. ...' (De Bello Gallico v. 21)
Thus when his brother’s forces in Essex and London had surrendered after their security was guaranteed he surrendered. Cassivellaunus means Vellaunus of the Cassi and thus Caesar does mention his tribe.
Caesar also says he was placed in supreme command of the force.
'by common consent they had entrusted the supreme command and conduct of the campaign to Cassivellaunus, whose territories are divided from the maritime states by the river called Tamesis, about eighty miles from the sea.'
Caesar also says '"Having obtained knowledge of their plans, Caesar led his army into the borders of Cassivellaunus as far as the River Thames, which can be crossed at one place only on foot, and that with difficulty. ..'
We can see from these accounts that the unification of the Cassi with the other tribes resulted in the Catuvellauni or the Smiters (warriors) of Vellaunus.
His son (some say grandson in which case he was the son of the brother of King Lear) was Tasciovanus father of Cunobelin, Andocomius and Epatticus. Geoffry of Monmouth makes him (Tenvantius) the son of Lud and Nephew of Caswallon. He ruled Cornwall before becoming high King of Britain. Geoffry says he was very warlike but pursued diligently the rule of law.
There is a shadowy figure names Andoco(mius) (c 5-15 CE) known only from his coins. He may have been a short-lived brother of Cunobelin or a usurper that was eventually deposed.
The Trinovantes were originally ruled by Imanuentis and his son Mandubracius the attributed great grandfather of Boudica wife of Prasutagus king of the Iceni. Their daughter married Marius, son of Arviragus and father of Coel I. The history and descent of these kings is contained in the paper Hittites in the House of David (No. 067C).
Imanuentis was murdered by Caswalon in 55 BCE. Mandubracius fled to Gaul and established an alliance with Caesar for his second expedition when the Cantii and the Catuvellauni were subjugated and forced to pray tribute. Manddubacius was reinstated in the Trinovantes in 55 BCE and ruled until ca 30 BCE. He was left in a precarious position after the assassination of Caesar in 44 BCE and certainly by 30 BCE he had been succeeded by Addedomarus who ruled the Trinovantes from at least 30 BCE to 20 BCE when he was overthrown by the pro Roman Dumnovellaunos.
The Trinovantes ruled by Lud were inherited by Dumnovellaunos ca 20 BCE – 5 CE. He also appears to have ruled the Coritani over this period. Around 15 BCE he invaded the Cantii and seemingly after coming to an arrangement with the Romans ruled there near Canterbury until 5 CE with an alliance formed with the pro Roman Tincommius (son of Commius) of the Atrebates (20 BCE – 5 CE) whose lands went into west Kent from what is now Sussex. However, the Anti-Roman forces of the Catuvellauni under Taciovanus defeated them in a battle ca 5 CE and Dumnovellaunus and Tincommius fled to Rome and remained there.
Thus the rule of the Trinobantes of London and Essex, the Coritani, the Atrebantes and the Cantii passed to the hands of the family of Tasciovanus whose rule passed to Cunobelin with his brother Eppaticus ruling the Atrebates seemingly as his vassal until 10 CE.
What leads us to believe the tribes were united under the one family rule was that the sons of Cunobelin were Amminius, Togodumnos, Arviragus and Caratacus or Caradog.
Amminius was king of the Cantii from 25 CE when Eppillus was deposed to ca 40 CE when family rivalries forced him to flee to the continent and seek aid for the coming invasion of Caligula. After Caligula received his submission he simply went home in triumph and left Amminius to return to Britain and his tomb appears to have been found at St Albans.
Togodumnos was allegedly king of the Catuvellauni from 41-43 CE. The name is probably a title Tog y Dumnaint i.e. chief of the Dumnonii in Devon and Cornwall. When Caratacus or Caradog was defeated by the Romans in Kent he led a second expedition against them and was defeated in Wales on the Border of Shropshire. A legend started that the leader (allegedly Caradog) was killed in Hampshire. He may actually have been Arviragus the elder. His son Meurig was taken to Rome and Meurig is the Celtic abbreviation or form of Arviragus.
Caradog was king of the Cantii at the invasion of Claudius and after his defeat moved west and assumed overall rule of the Silures who were under Arviragus. As we stated Togodumnos was the title of the War chief of the Dumnonii and Arviragus held that title as well as king of the Silures as also later did Guiderius son of Caradog (a careful analysis of M. Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens, Carroll and Graf 1999, pp. 67-79).
From the grouping of the tribes the rulership in Southern England was of a confederation of tribes ruled by the one royal family of Trojan descent that established area kings under the High King of the Britons with a major branch in Essex at Colchester (Camulodinum) and a lesser at London east of the Thames and the Major tribes west of the Thames being the more powerful element.
The Gomerites are thus located in Britain in Wales and Cornwall and from Devon to Kent where they were subjugated by the Saxons and the Jutes in Kent and Herefordshire. They proceed north into Yorkshire where the Angles superimposed themselves on their areas through Anglia and the Trinovantes in Essex and Middlesex and the tribes that made up the Catuvellauni.
The Coritani covered Lincolnshire and Leicestershire and were not a single tribe but an aggregation of like minded social groups.
They intruded into South Yorkshire and may well have had Parisii blood lines among them.
They maintained a major iron-age settlement by the river Witham and at Ratae. They were Celts and if not Gomerites, they were sons of Magog originally although they were continually being attacked by their warlike Magogite neighbours the Brigantes. The river Humber is in this area and that marked the Battle of the Trojan British with the Huns in the 9th century BCE. Thus they are probably Gomerites adjoining the northern group of the Parisii in Yorkshire and maintaining a secure border against the Brigantes to the Northwest. Their huts and ditches have a cultural connection with the Belgic Tribes in the South. Ptolemy lists the name as Coritani and Coritavi. From their coins we might assume they were ruled by three magistrates or leaders. One coin only records a leader and three subordinates, ca 45 CE.
They were taken over by invading Angles and Mercian Danes.
The Iceni and the Trinovantes were almost annihilated by the Romans after the rebellion and destruction of a vexilation of the Ninth Legion Hispana. Their area absorbed others by default hence the area is now known as East Anglia and Essex.
Regarding the Parisii of Yorkshire and Humberside their burial practices are virtually unique in Britain but closely resemble the burial sites of the Parisii along the Sequana or Seine Valley in France. There are generally without grave goods but contain swords and even chariots. They also inhabited the island of Lutetia which is now the island of the Notre Dame Cathedral. Originally they formed one political group with the Senones in Gaul (Caesar De Bello Gallica vi.3)
We can thus reasonably assume we are dealing with the same tribe using the same name of their hero at Troy.
The Cornovii were a pastoral group that were aceramic until the third century BCE. Their area extended from Powis through Shropshire, Cheshire, Staffordshire and into Herefordshire.
Their capital was at Wroxeter Shropshire.
The site of the final battle with the Romans on the border of Wales and Shropshire indicates they were the same Gomerite people as the Silurians and others of the Welsh.
The Brigantes established themselves in Britain and extended across from Lancashire into west and North Yorkshire and were probably the reason the Romans stationed the Sarmatian knights at Ribchester.
The nine poleis attributed to the Brigantes by Ptolemy
EPIACVM (Whitley Castle, Northumberland)
VINOVIA / VINNOVIVM? (Binchester, Durham)
CATARACTONIVM (Catterick, North Yorkshire)
CALACVM? (Burrow in Lonsdale, Lancashire) [Overborough?]
ISVRIVM BRIGANTVM (Aldborough, North Yorkshire)
RIGODVNVM? (Castleshaw, Greater Manchester) [Ingleborough?]
OLENACVM? / OLICANA? (Elslack, North Yorkshire) [Ilkley?]
EBVRACVM (York, North Yorkshire)
CAMBODVNVM? (Slack, West Yorkshire)
The Carvetii are to the Northwest of the Brigantes in Cumbria and for some season are not mentioned in Ptolemies writings of Britain.
The area is totally unlike the Southern settlements of Britain and some forty settlements are all placed around a fortified settlement.
It appears that the Riphathian Gomerites are to the South of Britain and the Brigantes from the division of Magogites that heads north into Scotland where we find more Magogites and also Scandinavians which we will deal with under Ashkenaz and explain the Magogite intrusions.
There are some Irish elements that settled in South Wales on the coast.
The mining elements in Flintshire in North West Wales were carried out by the Deceangi who were mining before the Roman occupation.
The Ordovices to the South of the Deceangi were probably administered from Anglesey and had two centres in Hereford and Worcestershire The mention of the one at Shropshire by Ptolemy is probably a mistake. Their sites go into Gwynedd and Powys.
The Ordovices were defeated with Caradog and suffered huge losses and after they recovered their strength they attacked a regiment of Roman Cavalry exterminating them and were themselves virtually exterminated by Agricola. There is scarcely any archaeological record of them in Roman Britain.
The name is derived from the fact that the Romans forced then into the hills and refers to their rock-dwelling.
The Silurians in South Wales were attacked by three successive governors for their support of Caractacus or Caradog. Ostorius Scapula appointed in 47 died of natural causes fighting them in 51 CE. Claudius appointed Aulus Didius as legate. However, the Silurians managed to defeat the XXth legion under Manlius Valens when they moved from Colchester to Powys to defeat the rebels.
The revolt of the Brigantes under Venutius the husband of Cartimandua, whom she had repudiated for his armour bearer, caused a serious rebellion and the Romans had to move north to suppress it. Gallus was kept occupied by this rebellion and intrigue until he was replaced by Quintus Veranius 57-58 CE who harried the Silurians with a few raids but died soon after (cf. Tacitus Annals xiv, 29)
Seutonius Paulinus was sent to Britain and before he could subdue the Silures the revolt of the Iceni occurred and he had to hurry back to Colchester to save the province.
Due to problems in Rome and elsewhere they were saved from harassment until the arrival of governor Sextus Julius Frontinus in 76 CE who subdued them (Tacitus Agricola xvii, 2).
Tacitus (Annals xi, 2) gives us a description of the Silures as being swarthy with dark curly hair and similar to the Iberians of Spain. There is not much doubt there was trade connection with the Phoenicians and Basques of Tubal in Spain and also the Celts in Gaul.
These people were nomadic pastoralists who were an aceramic warrior tribe. They were close allies and ruled by the Gomerite nobility and thus we can assume they were Gomerites and not sons of Tubal.
It may well be that the Silurians were forced into the mountains of Wales from the greater lands of Gloucester shire and they never regained their former farmlands. Their king Arviragus was brother of Caradog and he is recorded as allocating twelve hides of land to Joseph and the church officers for the Church at Avalon in Glastonbury (see also the paper Origin of the Christian Church in Britain (No. 266)) and Hittites in the House of David (No. 067C)
The Demetae were located at Carmarthen Dyfedd. They had a known goldmine which was requisitioned by the Romans. They appear to have been ruled from a Roman fort.
The Dobunni had their principal centre (Corinium Dubonnorum) at Cirencester, Gloucestershire. The principal town was the second greatest town of Roman Britain and probably the administrative centre of the province of Britannia Prima. It covered 230 acres.
It extended to Somerset, Hereford, Avon, Worcester, Wiltshire, Oxfordshire and Warwickshire.
It is declared a non Belgic tribe with Belgic influences. The Belgae are on the southern border and the Artebates are on the South eastern section.
It has impressive hill forts.
These people are probably related to the Dumnonii.
However the Durotriges are to the east of the Dumnonii and they may have some connection with them also.
The Durotriges were a tribe in Dorset with the centre at Dorchester. Ilchester in Somerset appears to have been the centre of the Northern Durotriges and the entire system appears to have been a settlement of warring independent baronies from well entrenched hill forts rather than any settled kingdom.
The Belgae in Hampshire appear to be an amalgam of Belgic states put together by the Romans and were more fragmented tribal septs prior to the Romans. They had three centres (per Ptolemy). One was at Bath in Avon, one at Winchester and the other is as yet unidentified.
There are many septs identified with them that came from Gaul. The Artrebates are also a major Belgic Tribe in their own right and we can deal with them below. The references quoted below identify their source tribes and locations.
Ambiani Sea-faring nation dwelling along the valley of the Samara (Somme), and on the eastern Belgic coast of the Oceanus Britannicus (English Channel), where it narrows towards the Fretum Gallicum (Straits of Dover). Their tribal capital was Samarobriva, now Amiens on the banks of the Somme, in the Picardy region of France.
Atrebates Bordered to the north, south and west by the sea-faring nations the Menapii, the Ambiani and the Morini respectively, and on all other sides by friendly Belgic states. Their tribal capital was Nemetacum, now known as Arras, on the Scarpe River in the Artois region of northern France.
Catalauni Occupying the central Plaine de Champagne along the upper valley of the Matrona (Marne), this tribe bordered with the Gallic Tricasses to the south and south-west, and the Germanic Lingones to the south-east, but was surrounded on all other sides by friendly Belgic states. Their tribal capital was Durocatalaunum (Châlons-sur-Marne, France).
Leuci Inhabited the uplands of the Lorraine, between the upper reaches of the rivers Mosella (Moselle) and Mosa (Meuse). Though supported by the friendly Belgic Mediomatrici and Catalauni to the north and west, they were surrounded by the Germanic Raurici, Sequani and Lingones to the east, south-east and south. Their tribal capital was Tullum (Toul, France), on the Moselle.
Mediomatrici Inhabited the upper valley of the Mosella in the northern Lorraine, between the Treveri in the north and the Leuci to the south, they also bordered with the Germanic Nemetes on the east. Their tribal capital was Divodurum (Metz, France), on the Moselle.
Menapii Inhabited the southern shores of the Oceanus Germanicus (North Sea) in the area now known as Flanders which lies mostly in Belgium, though their tribal capital Castellum Menapiorum, was at Cassel in France.
Morini Occupied the territory nearest to Britain, overlooking the Fretum Gallicum (Strait of Dover), their major towns were Gesoriacum/Bononia and Tarvenna, known nowadays as Boulogne and Thérouanne, both in the Artois region of France.
Nervii A powerful tribe of central Belgica, bordering on the north with the minor Germanic tribe the Texuandri, but supported on all other sides by their Belgic neighbours, notably the eastern Tungri and the western Atrebates. Their tribal capital lay at Bagacum, now Bavai near Maubeuge, on the upper Sambre in France.
Remi Occupied the northern Plaine de Champagne on the southern fringes of the Ardennes, between the rivers Mosa (Meuse) and Matrona (Marne), and along the river valleys of the Aisne and its tributaries the Aire and the Vesle. They were surrounded on all sides by friendly Belgic states, and their tribal capital was at Durocortum (Reims, France), on the Vesle.
Treveri This important tribe inhabited the lower valley of the Mosella, within the southern fringes of the vast Arduenna Silva (Ardennes Forest). They were bordered on the north, west and south by the friendly Belgic tribes the Tungri, the Remi and the Mediomatrici, respectively, while to the east were the Germanic Vangiones. Their tribal capital Colonia Augusta Treverorum (Trier, Germany), was also the site of a Roman colony, and the provincial capital of Belgica itself.
Tungri Occupied the lands of the northern Arduenna Silva (Ardennes), along the lower valley of the Mosa (Meuse). They shared borders to the north and east with Germanic tribes, but were bolstered by the Belgic Nervii on the west and the Remi and Treveri to the south. Their tribal capital lay at Atuatuca, modern Tongeren in the Limburg district of Belgium.
Following the same reference we see The Belgic Tribes in Britain were:
This tribe formed a British colonial state of their own, and they are dealt with in more detail in the RBO WebPage on the Atrebates.
The Ambiani were probably responsible for the coins known nowadays as Gallo-Belgic A, in circulation around the middle of the second century BC, which are found in the Somme valley in northern France, and in parts of southern Britain.
An inordinate amount of coinage identified with this tribe has been found in southern Britain, more than can be explained by simple trading with the continental Ambiani. It is faily certain from the amount of coinage found, that the coins of the Ambiani were in common use in parts of Britain, and on this basis, it seems probable that the Ambiani themselves occupied the land in which their coins circulated.
We are told by Caesar himself:
"... Among them [the Suessiones], even within living memory, Diviciacus had been king, the most powerful man in the whole of Gaul, who had exercised sovereignty alike over a great part of these districts, and even over Britain. ..." (Caesar De Bello Gallico ii.4)
The coins now known as Gallo-Belgic C, issued between c.90 and 60BC, have been tentatively identified with King Diviciacus of the Suessiones. This coin is less common in Britain than previous issues, but has a wider distribution, from the coast of Sussex to the Wash, with finds being concentrated around Kent.
The uninscribed coins known as Gallo-Belgic F, which were issued between 60 and 50 BC, have a marked concentration of finds to the east of Paris, in the lands of the Suessiones, and are also found in many coastal areas of southern Britain. This coinage issue was the first to bear the design of a triple-tailed horse on the reverse, which became the standard motif of many issues in southern Britain over the next few decades. This has led scholars to believe that the Suessiones represented a considerable proportion of the Belgic peoples which had migrated to Britain during the second and first centuries BC.
The Armorican States
These were the tribes of north-western Gaul, now the French province of Normandy. Caesar lists the names of several of the major tribes from the region:
"... the states touching the Ocean, called by them the Armoric, among whom are the Curiosolites, Redones, Ambibarii, Caletes, Osismi, Veneti, Lemovices and Venelli. ..." (Caesar De Bello Gallico vii.75)
Of one of these tribes in particular, we were earlier told by Caesar:
"These Veneti exercise by far the most extensive authority over all the sea-coast in those districts, for they have numerous ships, in which it is their custom to sail to Britain, and they excell the rest in the theory and practice of navigation. ..." (Caesar De Bello Gallico iii.8)
The Veneti incurred the wrath of Caesar in 56 BC when they detained two of his tribunes, in order to exchange them for their own hostages that they themselves had earlier surrendered to Caesar's legate Publius Crassus. Caesar's response was typical when faced with treachery of this kind, he personally conducted a campaign against the Veneti, destroyed all of their ships, razed all of their towns and, in order to discourage any future attempts to detain his tribunes, made an example of the tribe.
"... He therefore put the whole of their senate to the sword, and sold the rest of the men as slaves." (Caesar De Bello Gallico iii.17)
In view of their extensive trade with the island, it is not unreasonable to suppose that the Veneti and perhaps other Armorican states, also had a number of colonies on the south coast of Britain. It must be pointed out that the Veneti were not a true Belgic tribe, being strictly-speaking of Gallic extraction.
The Morini inhabited the lands nearest to Britain. It would be illogical to suppose that this tribe did not have colonies in the island, especially in Kent.
The area of Kent was later settled by the Jutii of Jutland commencing with the Island of Thanet. Thus the Kentish people are a mixture of Gomerites and Jutes, which we will discuss later. They may well be all Gomerites.
We saw from an examination of the Basques that they were sons of Tubal and were akin to the people of Aquitane. The Atlantic Modal Haplotype is found from Spain to Belgium. Some Basques have the early Roman Celtic YDNA structure.
The AMH is signified by the DYS 14-12-24-11-13-13
The Basques are not a Celtic speaking people. Celtic in both P and Q forms are of Asian origin and we know they came from the Gomerite and Magogite peoples from Anatolia to Scythia. The Basques are an isolated branch of the sons of Tubal. They are genetically related to the other Japhethite tribes of the Causcasus but not linguistically. The mtDNA groups of both the Basques and the Nordic Sami people as well as the R1b Celt invaders may well have contributed to the AMH mutations. The Sami however are part of the Sons of HN of the Haplogroup N structure (see the paper Sons of Japheth, Part IIA: Sons of HN (No. 46BA)).
It is possible that the R1b groups mutate in and out of the AMH on a more frequent basis than thought. The mutations of mtDNA are now proven to be far more frequent than the models allowed. The isolation of the Far East Khazars and the R1a groups in Tubal shows that the Japhethite groups can be isolated through mtDNA influence into Hg. P. Asian and Amerindian Q and from P into the Astral-Asian and African RxR1 and R1a and R1b all from mutation and much of it caused by mtDNA isolation.
The Belgae are recorded from their move into Ireland as the Builg as a P Celtic language group. They may even be part of the Fir Bolgs or Leather People of the early colonisation of Ireland.
The options are that the Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH) developed in the R1b people of Tubal from the Iberian Peninsular and the Belgians are also sons of Tubal. The other option is that the tribes there, from a common mtDNA base, developed from more than one R1b lineage from both Gomer and Tubal and perhaps even Magog. The Belgians both in Belgium and the British isles are all sons of Tubal and mixed with the Gallic Gomerites and the Magogites it would appear.
The Belae are comprised of the following tribes.
Caesar names the following as Belgic tribes:
The later mentioned Tungri could simply be another name for the Eburones, as Caesar had officially wiped out this tribe. Other tribes that may have been included among the Belgae were the Leuci, Treveri and Mediomatrici. Posidonius includes the Armoricani in Brittany as well.
The Belgae were thus a mixture of the Germanic or Teutonic Tribes and the Celts of Gaul. We thus must also examine the Origin of the Teutons as well as the Celts. The Roman Province of Belgica contained also the Germanic Batavi at the Rhine Delta in what is now the Dutch part of the Netherlands. They arrived there around 50 BC.
They were originally part of the Chatti (Chathi or Catti) who were a Germanic tribe inhabiting Northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony along the upper reaches of the Weser River. They extended along the valleys and mountains of the Eder, Fulder and Werrra River Regions corresponding to but probably larger than Hesse-Cassel.
Tacitus (Histories iv, 70) says the Batavians were among them until an internal quarrel drove them into the uninhabited region at the mouth of the Rhine.
The Batavi inhabited what is now the Betuwe district of The Netherlands, around Lugdunum Batavorum (Leiden), at the mouth of the Rhine River. Under their chieftain Gaius Julius Civilis (known as Claudius Civilis in Germany), who had been a Roman army officer for many years, they revolted against Roman rule in the year 69 CE. The rebellion was soon joined by a number of Germanic tribes across the Rhine to the East and finally gripped the whole of Northeast Gaul. It was subdued a year later, but under favourable terms negotiated by Civilis. We will examine the origin of the Chatti later.
The Fris settled to the north of them with the Saxons and the Angles and then the Jutes to the north of them again into Jutland.
The divisions of the Celtic languages shed some light also on the peoples.
The Gaelic (from Gaul) language spoken in Ireland is recognised as Q Celtic or Goidelic. The Gaelic in Wales and Brittany is recognised as P Celtic or Brythonic. These distinctions developed over time and isolation. We know that the Welsh are Gomerites and the Milesian Irish are Magogites and so we might thus assume that the divisions occurred from the movement of those tribes. The fact that the Milesians spent a lot of time in Spain would account for the fact that the Celtiberian language has now been found to be Goidelic and thus the Q branch of Gaelic. They are thus related to the Milesian Irish who remained in Spain and the Magogite Brigantes who went to England. The name Brigantes comes from the sojourn in Spain of the Milesians and hence Brigantia also. The proximity to the Basques and no doubt the interchange of wives helped to isolate the DNA mutations in that area through the mtDNA. The later Norse mtDNA in Britain had a harmonising effect with the Northern or Norse Celt elements and the incoming people of Germanic linguistic influence.
“There are legitimate scholarly arguments in favour of both the Insular Celtic hypothesis and the P-Celtic/Q-Celtic hypothesis. Proponents of each schema dispute the accuracy and usefulness of the other's categories. Since the realization that Celtiberian was Q-Celtic in the 1970s, the division into Insular and Continental Celtic is the more widespread opinion (Cowgill 1975; McCone 1991, 1992; Schrijver 1995).
When referring only to the modern Celtic languages, since no Continental Celtic language has living descendants, "Q-Celtic" is equivalent to "Goidelic" and "P-Celtic" is equivalent to "Brythonic".
Within the Indo-European family, the Celtic languages have sometimes been placed with the Italic languages in a common Italo-Celtic subfamily, a hypothesis that is now largely discarded, in favour of the assumption of language contact between pre-Celtic and pre-Italic communities.”
Depending on which theory you prefer the languages can be derived as follows.
The structure of Celtic has been examined over many years but never in relation to their extended genealogies over modern times and DNA systems.
The Ossetians in the area of Russo-Georgia were originally part of the Hittite system. They spoke the language based on the language of the Celts and many of their words are used in early British names and they identify primarily with Edinburgh. It is most likely that they were part of the Scythian peoples that became the basis of the Parthians and remained there. It is likely that the area absorbed the Israelites after the Assyrian Captivity and they went north of the Araxes and the Haplogroup I Israelites became interspersed with these people. The Magogites were north of the Gomerites and identified themselves as a Scythian people. We can see the Scots-Irish of Dal Riada identify themselves as an “ancient Scythian people” in the declaration of Arbroath which was a letter written to the papacy from Scotland. Prior to the Fifth Century, Scotland had been named Alba but was renamed Scotland after Scota the ancestress of the Milesians who was a daughter of the early 18th dynasty pharaohs that married a Milesian ancestor Neill and was mother to Goedal Glas or Goedal the Green (see the paper Sons of Japheth: Part III Magog (No. 46C) and The lineage of the Milesians is in the Abraham’s Legacy Genealogy section:
The name was changed after the conquests of Neill of the Nine Hostages High king of Ireland who invaded Europe via England and took hostages from nine kings and returned to Ireland with Patrick of Tours (son or nephew of Martyn of Tours) as a captive in chains. Patrick paid him back by converting his grandson Columba who became the Sabbatarian saint Columba of Iona and was responsible for converting Scotland through his disciples such as Aiden of Lindisfarne.
The apostle Peter was bishop at Antioch and moved among them into Georgia preaching to the Hebrews among the Parthians. This is probably the origin among the Anglo-Saxons that Peter went to preach to them also as to why Andrew is patron saint of the Scots.
“1. Peter preached the Gospel in Pontus, and Galatia, and Cappadocia, and Betania, and Italy, and Asia, and was afterwards crucified by Nero in Rome with his head downward, as he had himself desired to suffer in that manner.
2. Andrew preached to the Scythians and Thracians, and was crucified, suspended on an olive tree, at Patrae, a town of Achaia; and there too he was buried.”
Names in England attest to Ossetian origin and are well and truly pre-Roman. The name of the Thames at London means Broadwater in Ossetian and the Ossetians are quite at home with the natives of the area Edinburgh whom they identify as Ossetians. It can be safely assumed that the Gomerite and Magogite Celts moved in to Britain over a period of 1000 years before the Romans invaded Britain. They were in Ireland from other tribes and areas even before that. Indeed the Romans are related to the Trojans of Wilusia and claim founding from the sons of Aenaeus. Wilusia was part of the Hittite Empire centred on the area Northeast of Troy and it was these very Trojans or Cimmerians that reinvaded Anatolia and named it Galatia after Gaul their new home. These names link both areas as did their tribal names. The Iliad identifies the inhabitants of Troy as Celts and records they spoke many languages. Some of the contingents came from as far away as Ethiopia or Abyssinia and were part of the Southern Hittite Alliance that was based on the Hamitic tribes. These people are also described in the Iliad. The Latins of Latium were also identified as coming from the Middle East and Parthians and thus Gomerites.
The R1b YDNA system came from this area of Anatolia and the Southern Caucasus and is acknowledged by geneticists as being a centre of the R1b system.
The Wikipedia arrangement dealing with the two explanatory theories is of use in examining the matter and also in providing links to the language and area data.
[Note] The P Celtic and Q Celtic Hypothesis seems to fit the model of the tribal break-ups of the Gomerite/Scythian Model far more efficiently than the Insular/Continental explanation as we know the tribal roots for these main stems and from their known genealogy we can see clearly that the P Celt is Gomerite and the Q Celt is Magogite.
The problem we then face is the Teutonic or Germanic language influence on these people. This can best be explained from the analysis of the sons of Ashkenaz and the influence of the Semitic Hebrew and Assyrian influence on those people in the Middle East and their movement into the Germanic areas of Northern Europe. This influence came with the Anglo-Saxons and their move in from the Middle East.
How the family tree of the Celtic languages is ordered depends on which hypothesis is used: