Christian Churches of God

No. 71




The Angel and Abraham’s Sacrifice

(Edition 2.0 19941008-19991213)


The proposed sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham is examined from a point of view which seeks to explain the role of the Angel of YHVH (Yahovah) in this activity and explain how this activity does not compromise the omniscience of God. The role of the Angel in the protection of Abraham is seen also in the establishment of Isaac.



Christian Churches of God

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(Copyright © 1994, 1999 Wade Cox)


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The Angel and Abraham’s Sacrifice


Abraham and the Angel

The Bible develops the manifestation of God through an Angel or messenger on a progressive and systematic basis. Genesis 16:7 is referred to as a manifestation of this Angel.


The story concerns the flight of Hagar from Sarai (Gen. 16:7-13). The Angel promises that he will bless and multiply her descendants, namely Ishmael and hence the Arab nation. Thus the blessings to the Arab people derive from the promises of the Angel to Hagar. At verse 13 Hagar refers to the entity listed here in this verse as simply YHVH, as You-Are-the-God-Who-Sees using the simple form for God, El.


Green (The Interlinear Bible) renders the text:

And the Angel of Jehovah found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness; by the fountain in the way of Shur and He said, Hagar, Sarai's slave girl, where did you come from? And where do you go? And she said, I am fleeing from the face of my mistress, Sarai. And the Angel of Jehovah said to her, Return to your mistress and submit yourself under her hand. And the Angel of Jehovah said to her, I will exceedingly multiply your seed, so that it shall not be numbered for multitude. And the Angel of Jehovah said to her see you are with child and shall bear a son; and you shall call his name Ishmael, because Jehovah has attended to your affliction. And he shall be a wild ass of a man; his hand against all, and the hand of every man against him; and he shall live before all his brothers. And she called the name of Jehovah, the One speaking to her, You, a God of vision! For she said, Even here have I looked after the One seeing me?


This entity was interchangeably referred to as the Angel of Yahovah (YHVH) and also as Yahovah, the One speaking to her thus implying multiplicity. The promises to Ishmael are also significant. The concept of Ishmael living before all his brothers has multiple meanings which stretch into the last days.


The entity named as Yahovah again appears to Abraham (Chapter 17) some few years later. Abraham speaks face to face with him. From John 1:18 this entity, therefore, could not have been God the Father (that is, the God referred to in the accusative as ton Theon in the Greek) or Eloah. He speaks as Elohim Shadday (SHD 7706) or God Almighty (most Powerful). This entity was Elohim yet from the understanding of the texts he was not Eloah or God the Father. (Eloah is the singular form for God, hence Allah). This places the entity as that referred to in Psalm 45:7. The Elohim of Israel who was anointed as Elohim by his Elohim (Eloheik) who is Eloah. This entity establishes his covenant with Abraham and blesses his seed, both Ishmael and Isaac. He establishes the covenant with Isaac's seed perpetually. This Elohim acts as a messenger or Angel for Yahovah Most High and is himself referred to as Yahovah and also the Angel of Yahovah. In Genesis 18 Yahovah again appears to Abraham -- this time in a group of three. At Genesis 18:3 he is addressed as Yahovah. This is the first of the 134 alterations from Yahovah to Adonai by the Sopherim (scribes). (The official list of 134 is given in the Massorah, pp. 107-115, Ginsburg edition) and is repeated in The Companion Bible, Appendix 32. The list is significant. The substitutions we are concerned with in the Pentateuch are at Genesis 18:3,27,30,32; 19:18; 20:4; Exodus 4:10,13; 5:22, 15:17; 34:9; Numbers 14:7. Elohim was treated in the same way and thus the list requires addition.


The three entities here were referred to as Yahovah with no distinction. Thus the multiple messengers or angels (Malak) from which the title for king of Israel is derived, carry this name.


Abraham entreated with Yahovah for the sparing of Sodom based on its righteousness. The two beings in Genesis 19 who came to Sodom (as stated to Abraham) were identified as Angels. These two entities were addressed as Yahovah, both of them together and without distinction, which was probably why the Sopherim changed the titles at verse 18. The destruction of Sodom was done by Elohim (Gen. 19:29). We can thus demonstrate that the title Yahovah or YHVH is applied in a hierarchical sequence: from Yahovah of Hosts, God Most High, or Eloah, to the Elohim of Israel who is a subordinate God, to the two angels who were in turn subordinate to that Elohim. Thus the term is one of authority delegated from Eloah. The further conclusion is that we have four specific beings, which are referred to as God in the biblical narrative. Who are they? What do they do and what are the implications in the meaning of the terms? The answer is that Christ was appearing to Israel and establishing his system through the Patriarchs. The actions in relation to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob are most significant.


At Genesis 20:4, a being referred to as Elohim by Abimelech, king of Gerar, came to him in a dream ordering the return of Sarah, Abraham's wife whom he had taken thinking she was Abraham's sister. This Elohim is logically the One who established his covenant with Abraham and his seed. Thus, when Hagar was sent away, this entity protected her because of the promises concerning Ishmael. At Genesis 21:17-20 we have the curious position that Elohim heard the voice of Ishmael but it was the Angel of God (Elohim) who spoke to Hagar. But more curiously, this entity, who was the Angel of Elohim, was himself referred to as Elohim when he opened Hagar's eyes. Thus, the Elohim who repeated the promises to Hagar that he had made to Abraham concerning Ishmael, was subordinate as the Angel of Elohim but was also referred to as Elohim in his own right.


The Angel and the Sacrifice of Isaac

The Angel of YHVH is that entity who protects and deals with Abraham. The Angel tests Abraham by demanding the sacrifice of Isaac. The omniscience of God is here not in question as it was not Eloah who was directly involved.


Genesis 22:11-12 And the Angel of Jehovah called to him from the heavens and said, Abraham! And he said behold me. And He said, Do not lay your hand on the boy nor do anything to him. For now I know that you are a fearer of God, and you have not withheld your son, your only one from Me (The Interlinear Bible).


The entity here testing Abraham was variously referred to as Yahovah, Elohim and the Angel of Yahovah. The Angel, who is clearly subordinate is not omniscient. He may have tested Abraham for demonstration purposes to Abraham and Isaac, knowing the outcome. The biblical evidence is that this entity is given relative omniscience over the earth. God has omniscience and God thus sees times and or appoints judgment (RSV).


Job 24:1  "Why are not times of judgment kept by the Almighty, and why do those who know him never see his days? (RSV)


Job 24:1  Why, seeing times are not hidden from the Almighty, do they that know him not see his days? (KJV)


The concept is certainly one of omniscience. The Interlinear Bible throws more light on the subject with a more literal translation.


Why since times are not hidden from the almighty, even those knowing Him do not see His days?


This text is derived from the literal Why from the Almighty not are stored up times, And ones not knowing Him do see His Days? The last half is a question which asserts, in effect, that it is necessary to know God to see His days.


The first half carries the proposition that time is not a linear proposition to God in that they are not stored up and He has ready access to the future. Job 28:10,24 demonstrates the temporal omniscience of God.


Job 28:10 He cutteth out rivers among the rocks; and his eye seeth every precious thing. (KJV)


Job 28:24  For he looketh to the ends of the earth, and seeth under the whole heaven; (KJV)


God is in total control of all activity in the universe. His understanding of the activities of humans is absolute.


Job 31:4 Doth not he see my ways, and count all my steps? (KJV)


Job 34:21-25 For his eyes are upon the ways of man, and he seeth all his goings. 22 There is no darkness, nor shadow of death, where the workers of iniquity may hide themselves. 23 For he will not lay upon man more than right; that he should enter into judgment with God. 24 He shall break in pieces mighty men without number, and set others in their stead. 25 Therefore he knoweth their works, and he overturneth them in the night, so that they are destroyed. (KJV)


Job 36:4-5  For truly my words shall not be false: he that is perfect in knowledge is with thee. 5 Behold, God is mighty, and despiseth not any: he is mighty in strength and wisdom. (KJV)


Job 37:16 Dost thou know the balancings of the clouds, the wondrous works of him which is perfect in knowledge? (KJV)


Job 42:2  I know that thou canst do every thing, and that no thought can be withholden from thee. (KJV)


Psalm 1:6 For the LORD knoweth the way of the righteous: but the way of the ungodly shall perish. (KJV)


Psalm 7:9 Oh let the wickedness of the wicked come to an end; but establish the just: for the righteous God trieth the hearts and reins. (KJV)


Psalm 11:4 The LORD is in his holy temple, the LORD'S throne is in heaven: his eyes behold, his eyelids try, the children of men. (KJV)


Psalm 33:13-15 The LORD looketh from heaven; he beholdeth all the sons of men. 14 From the place of his habitation he looketh upon all the inhabitants of the earth. 15 He fashioneth their hearts alike; he considereth all their works. (KJV)


Psalm 37:18 The LORD knoweth the days of the upright: and their inheritance shall be for ever. (KJV)


Psalm 38:9 Lord, all my desire is before thee; and my groaning is not hid from thee. (KJV)


Psalm 44:21  Shall not God search this out? for he knoweth the secrets of the heart. (KJV)


Psalm 66:7 He ruleth by his power for ever; his eyes behold the nations: let not the rebellious exalt themselves. Selah. (KJV)


Psalm 73:11 And they say, How doth God know? and is there knowledge in the most High? (KJV)


1Corinthians 3:20  And again, The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain. (KJV)


God thus tries the hearts and the guidance or the willingness of men to yield to Him. In effect, to establish in their minds the levels of commitment to which they will extend themselves.

Psalm 94:9-11 He that planted the ear, shall he not hear? he that formed the eye, shall he not see? 10 He that chastiseth the heathen, shall not he correct? he that teacheth man knowledge, shall not he know? 11 The LORD knoweth the thoughts of man, that they are vanity. (KJV)


Psalm 119:168  I have kept thy precepts and thy testimonies: for all my ways are before thee. (KJV)


The elect are in His hands.

Psalm 121:3-4 He will not suffer thy foot to be moved: he that keepeth thee will not slumber. 4 Behold, he that keepeth Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep. (KJV)


Psalm 139:1-24 To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David. O LORD, thou hast searched me, and known me. 2 Thou knowest my downsitting and mine uprising, thou understandest my thought afar off. 3 Thou compassest my path and my lying down, and art acquainted with all my ways. 4 For there is not a word in my tongue, but, lo, O LORD, thou knowest it altogether. 5 Thou hast beset me behind and before, and laid thine hand upon me. 6 Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; it is high, I cannot attain unto it. 7 Whither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence? 8 If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there: if I make my bed in hell, behold, thou art there. 9 If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea; 10 Even there shall thy hand lead me, and thy right hand shall hold me. 11 If I say, Surely the darkness shall cover me; even the night shall be light about me. 12 Yea, the darkness hideth not from thee; but the night shineth as the day: the darkness and the light are both alike to thee. 13 For thou hast possessed my reins: thou hast covered me in my mother's womb. 14 I will praise thee; for I am fearfully and wonderfully made: marvellous are thy works; and that my soul knoweth right well. 15 My substance was not hid from thee, when I was made in secret, and curiously wrought in the lowest parts of the earth. 16 Thine eyes did see my substance, yet being unperfect; and in thy book all my members were written, which in continuance were fashioned, when as yet there was none of them. 17 How precious also are thy thoughts unto me, O God! how great is the sum of them! 18 If I should count them, they are more in number than the sand: when I awake, I am still with thee. 19 Surely thou wilt slay the wicked, O God: depart from me therefore, ye bloody men. 20 For they speak against thee wickedly, and thine enemies take thy name in vain. 21 Do not I hate them, O LORD, that hate thee? and am not I grieved with those that rise up against thee? 22 I hate them with perfect hatred: I count them mine enemies. 23 Search me, O God, and know my heart: try me, and know my thoughts: 24 And see if there be any wicked way in me, and lead me in the way everlasting. (KJV)


Psalm 142:3 When my spirit was overwhelmed within me, then thou knewest my path. In the way wherein I walked have they privily laid a snare for me. (KJV)


The Lord upholds His people. His understanding is infinite.

Psalm 147:4-5 He telleth the number of the stars; he calleth them all by their names. 5 Great is our Lord, and of great power: his understanding is infinite. (KJV)


Isaiah 40:26  Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who hath created these things, that bringeth out their host by number: he calleth them all by names by the greatness of his might, for that he is strong in power; not one faileth. (KJV)


Proverbs 15:3 The eyes of the LORD are in every place, beholding the evil and the good. (KJV)


Proverbs 15:11  Hell and destruction are before the LORD: how much more then the hearts of the children of men? (KJV)


Proverbs 16:2 All the ways of a man are clean in his own eyes; but the LORD weigheth the spirits. (KJV)


Thus God knows the hearts but he tries them. This is to establish a process of understanding in the hearts of each individual so that they can enter into righteous judgment.


Proverbs 17:3 The fining pot is for silver, and the furnace for gold: but the LORD trieth the hearts. (KJV)


Proverbs 24:12 If thou sayest, Behold, we knew it not; doth not he that pondereth the heart consider it? and he that keepeth thy soul, doth not he know it? and shall not he render to every man according to his works? (KJV)


Isaiah 28:29 This also cometh forth from the LORD of hosts, which is wonderful in counsel, and excellent in working. (KJV)


Isaiah 29:15-16  Woe unto them that seek deep to hide their counsel from the LORD, and their works are in the dark, and they say, Who seeth us? and who knoweth us? 16 Surely your turning of things upside down shall be esteemed as the potter's clay: for shall the work say of him that made it, He made me not? or shall the thing framed say of him that framed it, He had no understanding? (KJV)


Isaiah 40:13-28  Who hath directed the Spirit of the LORD, or being his counsellor hath taught him? 14 With whom took he counsel, and who instructed him, and taught him in the path of judgment, and taught him knowledge, and shewed to him the way of understanding? 15 Behold, the nations are as a drop of a bucket, and are counted as the small dust of the balance: behold, he taketh up the isles as a very little thing. 16 And Lebanon is not sufficient to burn, nor the beasts thereof sufficient for a burnt offering. 17 All nations before him are as nothing; and they are counted to him less than nothing, and vanity. 18 To whom then will ye liken God? or what likeness will ye compare unto him? 19 The workman melteth a graven image, and the goldsmith spreadeth it over with gold, and casteth silver chains. 20 He that is so impoverished that he hath no oblation chooseth a tree that will not rot; he seeketh unto him a cunning workman to prepare a graven image, that shall not be moved. 21 Have ye not known? have ye not heard? hath it not been told you from the beginning? have ye not understood from the foundations of the earth? 22 It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in: 23 That bringeth the princes to nothing; he maketh the judges of the earth as vanity. 24 Yea, they shall not be planted; yea, they shall not be sown: yea, their stock shall not take root in the earth: and he shall also blow upon them, and they shall wither, and the whirlwind shall take them away as stubble. 25 To whom then will ye liken me, or shall I be equal? saith the Holy One. 26 Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who hath created these things, that bringeth out their host by number: he calleth them all by names by the greatness of his might, for that he is strong in power; not one faileth. 27 Why sayest thou, O Jacob, and speakest, O Israel, My way is hid from the LORD, and my judgment is passed over from my God? 28 Hast thou not known? hast thou not heard, that the everlasting God, the LORD, the Creator of the ends of the earth, fainteth not, neither is weary? there is no searching of his understanding. (KJV)


God does not work eight-hour shifts. All things that are done by all nations are taken into account. Those people will enter into righteous judgment in the second resurrection. Only the elect are being judged now. The elect are formed into two groups. The first group is the 144,000 of the tribes. These are the central administrative corp of the Kingdom of God. The next group is the great multitude who qualify by simple obedience and faith for the outer administrative structure. They will all be kings and rulers in relative degree. The 144,000 appear to be selected on a basis of seventy-two per year of the 120 Jubilee period. In other words 3,600 are selected per Jubilee. The exact basis of this structure is developed in the paper The Harvests of God, the New Moon Sacrifices, and the 144,000 (No. 120). The understanding is spoken by stages as a mystery.


1Corinthians 2:7  But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory: (KJV)


This is done as a mystery to protect the elect. Once the full number of the 144,000 has been drawn out, then the mystery will be unfolded. Then all men will be tested. The elect are known according to the omniscience of God. The elect are called from the beginning.


1Peter 1:2 Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied. (KJV)


Isaac was one of the elect. God knew he was not going to be killed.


Isaiah 41:4  Who hath wrought and done it, calling the generations from the beginning? I the LORD, the first, and with the last; I am he. (KJV)


God's absolute knowledge enables the spirit of prophecy. They are declared from the beginning.


Isaiah 42:9 Behold, the former things are come to pass, and new things do I declare: before they spring forth I tell you of them. (KJV)


Isaiah 44:7 And who, as I, shall call, and shall declare it, and set it in order for me, since I appointed the ancient people? and the things that are coming, and shall come, let them shew unto them. (KJV)


All things are set in order by God, so that the times of the plan of salvation cannot be circumvented by the fallen Host. That is why the tower of Babel was destroyed. Had the civilisation of man progressed at the rate that it was developing, then the end result would have been the destruction of the entire solar system and perhaps even the galaxy and beyond. The times of the adversary were confined to a specific period to enable the extraction of a number of people under the best circumstances.


Sometimes God establishes nations for the protection of the elect and the furtherance of the plan.


Isaiah 45:4  For Jacob my servant's sake, and Israel mine elect, I have even called thee by thy name: I have surnamed thee, though thou hast not known me. (KJV) (see also v. 21)


God declares the end from the beginning. Therefore, the activities of individuals must be known as a series of true propositions in a form perhaps like a four dimensional matrix.

Isaiah 46:10 Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure: (KJV)


Isaiah 48:3-6  I have declared the former things from the beginning; and they went forth out of my mouth, and I shewed them; I did them suddenly, and they came to pass. 4 Because I knew that thou art obstinate, and thy neck is an iron sinew, and thy brow brass; 5 I have even from the beginning declared it to thee; before it came to pass I shewed it thee: lest thou shouldest say, Mine idol hath done them, and my graven image, and my molten image, hath commanded them. 6 Thou hast heard, see all this; and will not ye declare it? I have shewed thee new things from this time, even hidden things, and thou didst not know them. (KJV)


This process of Omniscience or Divine Prescience is ongoing to the end.


Isaiah 66:18 For I know their works and their thoughts: it shall come, that I will gather all nations and tongues; and they shall come, and see my glory. (KJV)


Thus, this process is ongoing through the resurrection and the judgment. God tries the reins and the hearts of men through His messengers under Jesus Christ.


Jeremiah 11:20  But, O LORD of hosts, that judgest righteously, that triest the reins and the heart, let me see thy vengeance on them: for unto thee have I revealed my cause. (KJV) See also Jer. 20:12.


Jeremiah 17:10  I the LORD search the heart, I try the reins, even to give every man according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings. (KJV)


Jeremiah 23:24 Can any hide himself in secret places that I shall not see him? saith the LORD. Do not I fill heaven and earth? saith the LORD. (KJV)


Jeremiah 32:19 Great in counsel, and mighty in work: for thine eyes are open upon all the ways of the sons of men: to give every one according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings: (KJV)


The second resurrection is thus tailored to deal with individuals according to how they lived and worked in the first life. These processes take into account attitudes and those attitudes cannot be hidden from God. The Holy Spirit searches them out even if the individual has not been given the Spirit through baptism. Thus, the Spirit acts according to the omnipotence of God confirming His omniscience.


Ezekiel 11:5 And the Spirit of the LORD fell upon me, and said unto me, Speak; Thus saith the LORD; Thus have ye said, O house of Israel: for I know the things that come into your mind, every one of them. (KJV)


Jeremiah 51:15  He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and hath stretched out the heaven by his understanding. (KJV)


At no time has the Lord forsaken the planet. Nor has He forgotten the evil wrought by men. He is slow to act, in mercy.

Ezekiel 9:9 Then said he unto me, The iniquity of the house of Israel and Judah is exceeding great, and the land is full of blood, and the city full of perverseness: for they say, The LORD hath forsaken the earth, and the LORD seeth not. (KJV)


The manifestation of God in the sacrifice involving Isaac is incompatible with the nature of God the Father or Eloah, but would be appropriate for the subordinate God the Elohim of Israel. The only other explanation is that God was simply testing Abraham through the Angel, knowing the outcome and that the test was to demonstrate both to Christ and Abraham that the calling and omniscience of God was infallible. The test for Abraham was not that he had to sacrifice his only son and for whom the promise was extended, but to establish the requirement of faith in the mind of the person and to demonstrate to Isaac and, hence, Israel that the obedience to God was all encompassing. The secondary repudiation of human sacrifice had to be established firmly in Abraham's mind.


The activities of God are all encompassing as Amos shows.

Amos 9:2-4 Though they dig into hell, thence shall mine hand take them; though they climb up to heaven, thence will I bring them down: 3 And though they hide themselves in the top of Carmel, I will search and take them out thence; and though they be hid from my sight in the bottom of the sea, thence will I command the serpent, and he shall bite them: 4 And though they go into captivity before their enemies, thence will I command the sword, and it shall slay them: and I will set mine eyes upon them for evil, and not for good. (KJV)


Daniel shows that omniscience is not relative to position or proximity. The knowledge of the last days was known from the beginning and declared by God.

Daniel 2:20-28 Daniel answered and said, Blessed be the name of God for ever and ever: for wisdom and might are his: 21 And he changeth the times and the seasons: he removeth kings, and setteth up kings: he giveth wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to them that know understanding: 22 He revealeth the deep and secret things: he knoweth what is in the darkness, and the light dwelleth with him. 23 I thank thee, and praise thee, O thou God of my fathers, who hast given me wisdom and might, and hast made known unto me now what we desired of thee: for thou hast now made known unto us the king's matter. 24 Therefore Daniel went in unto Arioch, whom the king had ordained to destroy the wise men of Babylon: he went and said thus unto him; Destroy not the wise men of Babylon: bring me in before the king, and I will shew unto the king the interpretation. 25 Then Arioch brought in Daniel before the king in haste, and said thus unto him, I have found a man of the captives of Judah, that will make known unto the king the interpretation. 26 The king answered and said to Daniel, whose name was Belteshazzar, Art thou able to make known unto me the dream which I have seen, and the interpretation thereof? 27 Daniel answered in the presence of the king, and said, The secret which the king hath demanded cannot the wise men, the astrologers, the magicians, the soothsayers, shew unto the king; 28 But there is a God in heaven that revealeth secrets, and maketh known to the king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the latter days.


God reveals it by stages through the prophets and the elect who are called according to predestination and His wisdom.


Romans 8:27-30 And he that searcheth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, because he maketh intercession for the saints according to the will of God. 28 And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose. 29 For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren. 30 Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified. (KJV)


We will not fail if we are predestined of God. He knows our actions through His omniscience. We are tested to strengthen us and to bring us further into judgment. By this process we are an example to the world, not only to the developing elect. Those who fail are called but not chosen.


The preparation of the elect takes place under the Angel of YHVH who is Christ.


The Angel and the Wife of Isaac

This subordinate God, termed the Angel of YHVH, who watches over Abraham, is relied upon in the dispatch of Abraham's servant to find a wife for Isaac. Abraham refers to the being as

Genesis 24:7 Jehovah, God of Heaven, who took me from the house of my father and from the land of my birth, and who spoke to me, and who swore to me, saying, I will give this land to your Seed; He shall send his Angel before you, and you shall take a wife from there for my son.(Interlinear)


The entity here is Yahovah or YHVH, Elohim of the heavens from SHD 8064, Shâmeh, the sky or the aloft referring to the visible arch in which the clouds move as well as the higher heavens. The entity who appeared to Abraham was the Elohim of Israel and not Eloah.


The selection of Abraham must have been done at the order of Eloah exercising his omniscience. The Angel referred to here is subordinate. However, it is regarded as carrying and exercising the power and authority of God.


The servant of Abraham was accompanied by the Angel:

Genesis 24:39-40 And I said to my master, perhaps the woman will not go after me. And he said to me, Jehovah, before whom I walk will send his Angel with you and prosper you[r] way.


The servant refers to the Angel as the God of his master.

Genesis 24:42-44 And I said, Jehovah, God of my master Abraham, if You will, I pray prosper the way in which I am about to go. Behold I stand at the well of water, and when the virgin comes out to draw water, and I say to her, Please let me drink a little water from your pitcher, and she says to me, Both you drink and also I will draw for your camels, may she be the woman whom Jehovah has designed for my master's son.


The reference shows that while it was the Angel of YHVH that was with him, the Angel is referred to as YHVH (or Yahovah). The title conveys authority and its use here illustrates the Hebrew concept of subordinate entities taking title by delegation. Thus the concept of action by the deputy, is the same as if it were done by the power; namely, God. The concept is further demonstrated by the comments of the servant.

Genesis 24:48 And I bowed and worshipped Jehovah, and I blessed Jehovah, God of my master Abraham, who has guided me in the true way, to take for his son the daughter of the brother of my master.


Primary Conclusion

The conclusion that appears inescapable is the Elohim of Abraham and, hence of Israel, is an Angel, that is a messenger, as a subordinate God who executes the will of The God, Eloah.


The subordination, however, does not detract from the authority. The presence of the Angel or messenger is equivalent to the presence of God, and the Angel itself is a theophanic manifestation as we see from numerous passages. To see the Angel is to see God and, indeed, the ground upon which the visitation occurs is holy as it was at Sinai with Moses. The concept of a subordinate Elohim is supported by the texts.


Secondary Conclusion

This elohim is involved in the establishment of the lineage and selection of the elect on an ongoing basis. The genealogical basis is done to establish the 144,000 of the tribes, according to their inheritance. Christ ensures that each is preserved where necessary to complete the plan as understood by God. We are not to fail our test. Our marriage is with the Lamb of God.