The Names of God (No. 116)
(Edition 2.0 19950306-20000705) Audio
The names of God are given and explained. The context in which they are used is important to an understanding of how God is acting and through whom He speaks.
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(Copyright ã 1995, 2000 Wade Cox)
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The Names of God
One of the most misunderstood concepts of the Bible is that of the name of God. It has been confused on the one hand by Trinitarian misapprehensions following on from the fourth century, and on the other hand, by the desire of Judaism to protect Monotheism from the errors of Trinitarianism and the dual power heresy. The desire to protect the sovereignty of God and defend the Monotheism of the biblical structure from the errors of Binitarianism and Trinitarianism inherent in the dual power heresy, saw Judaism gradually conceal the fact of the dual and subordinate structure of the way God dealt with Israel. The great Angel that was Elohim was concealed in the texts. A consequence of this was the alteration of some key texts and the concealing of the important truths of the subordinate being that dealt with Israel throughout its history. These entities have names and the names indicate their relationships. Justin Martyr in his First Apology writing on behalf of the Church to the emperor in Rome says that Christ was the Angel of God in the OT that gave the Law to Moses.
The knowledge of the name of God is indicative of biblical understanding. The most common misapprehension regarding the name of God stems from Psalm 83:18.
Psalm 83:18 That men may know that thou, whose name alone is JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth. (KJV)
This name was Yahovah (there is no J in Hebrew). Many entities carry this name on behalf of the one True God.
The text cross references to Exodus 6:3 and Isaiah 26:4. These three texts were the three places in the authorised version where the text was transliterated and printed in large capital letters. The text in Psalm 83:18 couples another title with the name Jehovah namely that of Elyon or the Most High. This is a distinguishing title as we will see. The name Jehovah is an inexact transliteration. Another transliteration is Yahweh. That also is inexact. The other two texts read:
Exodus 6:3 And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them. (KJV
Isaiah 26:4 4 Trust ye in the LORD for ever: for in the LORD JEHOVAH is everlasting strength: (KJV)
The name of God which was unknown to the Patriarchs had a specific meaning and hence also a purpose.
The name Jehovah (or more correctly Yahovah) is coupled with the name Elohim and refers to an Elohim and El in Psalm 83:1. Elohim is a plural word, which is dependent upon its usage. It means both God and gods. It applies to more than one supernatural being. It refers to unknown multiples in Genesis 1:26.
Genesis 1:26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. (KJV)
Binitarians attempt to confine this statement to two entities, namely God as Father and Christ, however this is impossible given the multiple applications of Elohim and the texts in Job which refer to multiple sons present at the creation (Job 1:6; 2:1; 38:4-7).
Job 2:1 Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the LORD. (KJV)
These are the Sons of The God (haElohim). The word Lord here is Jehovah (i.e. Yahovah). The Companion Bible has a note on the name Jehovah in Appendix 4, II. Jehovah is held to mean the Eternal or Immutable One. The definition is in Genesis 21:33.
Genesis 21:33 And Abraham planted a grove in Beersheba, and called there on the name of the LORD, the everlasting God. (KJV)
Everlasting here is from the Hebrew ‘olam meaning duration. The origin of the word Jehovah is held to be in He who was and is to Come. There is a problem with applying the name given at Sinai to simply Jehovah.
Exodus 3:14 And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you. (KJV)
I am here is hayah (%*% SHD 1961) which means to exist, to be or become. The Companion Bible renders the text ‘ehyeh ‘asher ‘ehyeh, and translates it as I will be what I will be (or become) (see note and Ap. 48), noting also that Jehovah means He will be spoken of by others. The Oxford scholars have noted in their Oxford Annotated RSV that Yahweh is in fact the third person form of the verb which actually means He causes to be.
So God reveals Himself as I will be what I will become through the Angel at Sinai. He is referred to as Jehovah (Yahovah) which means in the third person form: He causes to be. When anyone is referred to as Jehovah you are actually saying that He causes to be. You are thus acknowledging the subordinate nature of any being who speaks to you. The Jews understood it and God had never spoken to them; they were addressed by messengers. Those messengers were called Jehovah and that name means He causes to be, because He who causes to be was never there. When you understand the word Jehovah you understand always that you are referring to a messenger about somebody you have never seen or spoken to. Jehovah literally means I have never seen him
So the name given as I AM at Sinai was I am what I will become which was the message God gave to the Angel to Sinai. The word for the name of God translated as I AM was never used again. It is only used once in the Bible. The word for God from then on derived from that is the third person form of the verb. We know from John 1:18: No one has seen God at any time. The only begotten Son who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. So they translated only begotten Son to get around the concept that there was only one God born.
Only one God spoke and that was the monogenes theos, the only born God. In other words Jesus Christ was the only God to ever speak. God the Father never spoke. When you look at these names both in the Hebrew and the Greek you get an understanding. We only use the one word for God and then we use Lord and other things to qualify. Have one word for God is totally inadequate because we can’t understand what is being done through the names of God.
The next text in Job which deals with the Host is in Job 38:4-7.
Job 38:4-7 4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding. 5 Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest? or who hath stretched the line upon it? 6 Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner stone thereof; 7 When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy? (KJV)
From this text we know that the text in Genesis 1:26 ……let us make man in our image, refers to a group of beings who were present at the foundation of the earth; and that there were multiple morning stars; and morning star is a rank not a being. In this case at the beginning of the creation of the world there are multiple morning stars. There were multiple system commanders present at the formation of this world. That blows the whole argument that there are two persons in the Elohim and that there is only one Son of God. Those texts show that Binitarianism is as big a lie as Trinitarianism and limits the understanding of our destiny and tries to divorce us from our inheritance, which is to become coheirs equal with Christ. We will take our heritage with Christ and rule as sons of God and we will rule as elohim and el.
The morning stars here are multiple yet Christ has not taken up his rank as morning star of this planet yet and Satan is still the Lucifer or light bearer as the son of the morning, the morning star or day star. He is the god of this world and the prince of the power of the air (2Cor. 4:4; Eph. 2:2).
2Corinthians 4:4 does not say that Satan is the theos of this world for no reason. The Trinitarians try and say since Thomas says you are the kurios and the theos of me to Christ, he is therefore God the Father in a Trinity. In fact Paul says quite clearly that Satan is a theos of this world. So Thomas is saying Christ is a theos of him and Paul is saying that Satan is the theos of this world. Both of them are theoi; both of them are Gods. The Bible is quite clear on that. Paul says in 1Corinthians 8:5 there are many theoi and many Lords.
What we see about Satan is developed from Isaiah 14:12-17 where he is the Lucifer or Light Bearer.
Isaiah 14:12-17 12 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! 13 For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north: 14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High. 15 Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.
The stars of God here are the sons of God. Star is a rank. Hell is the grave. We are going to have a morning star who is going into the grave.
16They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms;
We have a change in status here to man.
17That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners? (KJV)
Here we see that the Lucifer, or light bearer, was the son of the morning or the morning star or day star. This rank is given to Christ and shared by the elect (2Pet. 1:19; Rev. 2:28; 22:16):
Ezekiel 28:14-19 14 Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee so: thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire. 15 Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till iniquity was found in thee. 16 By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire. 17 Thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness: I will cast thee to the ground, I will lay thee before kings, that they may behold thee. 18 Thou hast defiled thy sanctuaries by the multitude of thine iniquities, by the iniquity of thy traffick; therefore will I bring forth a fire from the midst of thee, it shall devour thee, and I will bring thee to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all them that behold thee. 19 All they that know thee among the people shall be astonished at thee: thou shalt be a terror, and never shalt thou be any more. (KJV)
These texts are quite clear. The means of Satan’s destruction is coming from a spiritual power within him, i.e. his power is going to be the means of his destruction. This spirit is not going to be any more. The Lucifer, the Morning Star is going to cease to exist. He is going to be made a man, be put through a process and given repentance and then he is going to be translated into another spirit being. The only way to purify Satan and the fallen host is to take them out of their existing system, give them repentance and in Satan’s case convert him to a process from which he can then be retranslated. He can then become once again a power and a force and he can be purified and made perfect and his iniquity can be cleansed and he can be restored to the host.
A lot of propaganda is geared around saying God is unjust and He actually created Satan like that from the beginning and Satan has no chance. In the same way Christ was created perfect from the beginning and he could not do anything else because he had the nature of God and Satan did not and it is all a fixed game. That is Satanic propaganda and if you fall into that error of saying Christ could not sin and Satan couldn’t do any good, then you do Satan’s work for him and the whole structure of the Trinity is geared to saying the rules were rigged, that God is unjust. God is not unjust as we will see.
Satan will cease to exist from this text. He will be reduced and dealt with in the Restoration and Judgement (see also the papers The Judgment of the Demons (No. 80) and Lucifer: Light Bearer and Morning Star (No. 223)). The ranks however were in existence before the earth was created and were multiple. The sons of the God (haElohim) presented themselves before Jehovah as we have seen from Job.
The term Jehovah is in two forms which have two separate meanings. The term is also accompanied by other names. The two separate forms are Jehovah (SHD 3068) and Jehovih (SHD 3069). They in fact distinguish two entities one of which carries the title of the other and is subordinate.
Strong states that Jehovah is the Jewish national name for God. The variant Jehovih (or correctly Yahovih) is used after Adonay or the Lord. This is the Lord Jehovih or the superior of Jehovah. He is Jehovah elyon or Jehovah of Hosts. Jehovih is used as a deferential form. Jehovah refers to Jehovah of Hosts as Jehovih in Ezekiel 16:36, 31:10,15; 38:10,14; 39:8. The dabar Jehovah or word of God occurs in Ezekiel. Adonai Jehovih is used for the prophecy in Ezekiel 29:8 which implies a distinction between the word of God and Adonai Jehovih.
Zechariah shows that there is a distinction in the names and entities (Zech. 2:3-12).
Zechariah 2:3-12 3 And, behold, the angel that talked with me went forth, and another angel went out to meet him, 4 And said unto him, Run, speak to this young man, saying, Jerusalem shall be inhabited as towns without walls for the multitude of men and cattle therein: 5 For I, saith the LORD, will be unto her a wall of fire round about, and will be the glory in the midst of her. 6 Ho, ho, come forth, and flee from the land of the north, saith the LORD: for I have spread you abroad as the four winds of the heaven, saith the LORD. 7 Deliver thyself, O Zion, that dwellest with the daughter of Babylon. 8 For thus saith the LORD of hosts; After the glory hath he sent me unto the nations which spoiled you: for he that toucheth you toucheth the apple of his eye. 9 For, behold, I will shake mine hand upon them, and they shall be a spoil to their servants: and ye shall know that the LORD of hosts hath sent me. 10 Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion: for, lo, I come, and I will dwell in the midst of thee, saith the LORD. 11 And many nations shall be joined to the LORD in that day, and shall be my people: and I will dwell in the midst of thee, and thou shalt know that the LORD of hosts hath sent me unto thee. 12 And the LORD shall inherit Judah his portion in the holy land, and shall choose Jerusalem again. (KJV)
It is clear from this text that there are two angels involved here. One is superior to the other and the superior one is the pre-incarnate Messiah. He speaks for Jehovah of Hosts who has sent him. Verse 5 is rendered as For I saith the Lord but is in fact For I, Jehovah’s oracle (see Companion Bible fn. to v. 5). This angel who is Jehovah’s oracle will deliver Israel from the nations (v. 9) and, by that, many nations will know that Jehovah of Hosts has sent that being to them. The apple of his eye is actually the apple of my eye. My was changed to His by the Sopherim regarding the word as derogatory to Jehovah (see Comp. Bible fn. to v. 8). The change was probably because the apple of my eye made it the apple of the eye of a subordinate entity. Many nations shall be joined to the Lord (Jehovah) in that day. He will dwell in the midst of them and they will know that Jehovah of Hosts has sent him to them. In other words Jehovah here is the angel sent to Israel by Jehovah of Hosts. This angel or messenger of Jehovah of Hosts was the elohim of Israel. Zechariah 12:8 shows clearly that the Angel of Jehovah was elohim and that the elect will also be elohim as he was.
Zechariah 12:8 In that day shall the LORD defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem; and he that is feeble among them at that day shall be as David; and the house of David shall be as God, as the angel of the LORD before them. (KJV)
The word for God here is elohim and the angel of the Lord is the Angel of Jehovah. The intent is clear. Both the angel and the household of David (i.e. the elect) will be as elohim.
Elohim as previously stated is the plural word for God. The name for God in the singular is Eloah. This name admits of no plurality. Proverbs 30:4-5 shows that He has a son as well as supplying His name Eloah after the question.
Proverbs 30:4-5 4 Who hath ascended up into heaven, or descended? who hath gathered the wind in his fists? who hath bound the waters in a garment? who hath established all the ends of the earth? what is his name, and what is his son's name, if thou canst tell? 5 Every word of God is pure: he is a shield unto them that put their trust in him. (KJV)
The word for God in verse 5 is Eloah. The concept of the son of God is thus made plain from the Old Testament. Ezekiel shows also the concept from 21:8-13:
Ezekiel 21:8-13 8 Again the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, 9 Son of man, prophesy, and say, Thus saith the LORD; Say, A sword, a sword is sharpened, and also furbished: 10 It is sharpened to make a sore slaughter; it is furbished that it may glitter: should we then make mirth? it contemneth the rod of my son, as every tree. 11 And he hath given it to be furbished, that it may be handled: this sword is sharpened, and it is furbished, to give it into the hand of the slayer. 12 Cry and howl, son of man: for it shall be upon my people, it shall be upon all the princes of Israel: terrors by reason of the sword shall be upon my people: smite therefore upon thy thigh. 13 Because it is a trial, and what if the sword contemn even the rod? it shall be no more, saith the Lord GOD. (KJV)
The statement in verse 9 is from Jehovah, however some codices with three early printed editions (one Rabbinic in margin), read Adonai. From verse 13 we read that it is Adonai Jehovah’s oracle. Thus we are dealing with the superior Jehovih or Jehovah of Hosts and we are referring to His son who was Messiah. He was given the rod. The swords referred to in verse 11 went to the king of Babylon as the slayer yet this was also the sword in the garden at Gethsemane. Christ thus fulfilled this prophecy. The rod of His son was despised as was every tree. In other words he was to be despised by crucifixion. The sword condemned the rod and therefore even the sword shall be no more. Thus the son and his death is clear from the OT texts. Messiah is the subordinate Jehovah of Israel who is sent by Jehovah of Hosts.
This text deals with the slaughter and destruction of Israel, and the cessation of the monarchy, whose day is come when iniquity shall have an end (verse 25). The monarchy shall then cease until Messiah comes, he whose right it is (verse 27).
The Jah root form (or Yaho)
Jehovah is one name applied to God and also to His subordinates who carry His name. The root form of this name is Jah which is also the name applied to God. Jehovah of Israel was not the object of worship. The object of worship was Jehovah of Hosts. The name of the Temple vested in the name Yaho which is the ancient rendering of Jah or Jahh. This also is listed as the name of God from the Psalms.
Psalm 68:4 Sing unto God, sing praises to his name: extol him that rideth upon the heavens by his name JAH, and rejoice before him. (KJV)
The first occurrence of the name Jah is in Exodus 15:2. Thus it is appropriate that this example is in the second or Exodus book of the Psalms.
Exodus 15:2 The LORD is my strength and song, and he is become my salvation: he is my God, and I will prepare him an habitation; my father's God, and I will exalt him. (KJV)
Jah is rendered here as The Lord. The concept of inhabiting eternity is implied. Its first use in the Bible is here connected with redemption. He is El and their father’s elohi.
Verse 3 then says that Jehovah is an ish or man of war.
Exodus 15:3 The LORD is a man of war: the LORD is his name. (KJV
Jehovah is here rendered Lord.
Praise is thus to be made in the name Jah, from Psalm 68:4. The text in verse 8 refers to the presence of God in the Exodus.
Psalm 68:8 The earth shook, the heavens also dropped at the presence of God: even Sinai itself was moved at the presence of God, the God of Israel. (KJV)
The presence of God was the Angel of Jehovah. He was here the pani or presence of elohim or peni-el, the Face of God. The presence was with them in the wilderness. The text says the elohim, elohi of Israel God the God of Israel.
Psalm 68:17 shows another significance to the construction.
Psalm 68:17 The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands of angels: the Lord is among them, as in Sinai, in the holy place. (KJV)
This text has some other meanings. The Companion Bible notes of the text that the number of the chariots of God is in the Hebrew twice ten thousand thousands, hence twenty million. The text, according to the primitive orthography in the division of the word (Companion Bible fn.), should read Jehovah hath come from Sinai into the Sanctuary (Ginsburg, Intr., pp. 161,162). Or with the ellipsis may read Jehovah among them (i.e. the angels and chariots) [hath come from] Sinai into the Sanctuary. (Comp. Bible ibid.).
The interpretation of the text is supplied in the next verse 18.
Psalm 68:18 Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive: thou hast received gifts for men; yea, for the rebellious also, that the LORD God might dwell among them. (KJV)
Jehovah here has ascended on high and received gifts for men and for the rebellious also that the Lord God or Jah Elohim might dwell among them. This is a direct reference to the Wave Sheaf Offering on the Sunday morning at the third hour or 9 am. Christ was presented as the Wave Sheaf and received gifts for men, namely the Holy Spirit. From the text in John 20:17 Christ informed Mary of the Ascent to the God and Father of us all. In John 20:19-22 we see he then returned the same day and breathed the Holy Spirit to the Disciples indicating the acceptance and gifts promised in Psalm 68:18 and his dispatch by the Father to the Church to send them forth. This day commenced the Omer count to Pentecost and the gift of the Holy Spirit to the entire church. (Look also at the paper The Wave Sheaf Offering (No. 106b)).
Jah or more correctly Yaho is thus a root form which refers to God in its variant delegations and aspects. Jah [of the] Elohim is the same as Jehovah of Hosts. The subordinate Jehovah here has taken captivity captive that all creatures both loyal and rebellious might be reconciled to God. This entity that takes captivity captive is identified from this text as Christ by reference to Ephesians 4:8 and Revelation 13:10. He received gifts from God for, and gave them to, men.
Ephesians 4:7-8 7 But unto every one of us is given grace according to the measure of the gift of Christ. 8 Wherefore he saith, When he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men. (KJV)
This text is referring to Christ as the subordinate deity of Israel. Paul here is referring to the ascension of Christ as told in Psalm 68:17 but does not draw out the full lesson in the text.
Similarly Revelation interprets the verses to take captivity captive:
Revelation 13:10 He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints. (KJV)
It is obvious that Jehovah here is Christ who is also the Angel of Jehovah. Jehovah is thus a delegated name. Jehovah is not the object of worship. Only when identified as Jehovah elohim or Jehovah of Hosts can Jehovah be a definitive object of worship. The only name of God which identifies the Father in one word is Eloah. Jehovah must be accompanied by other terms or taken in context to determine the entity. Thus God the Father can only be recognised as such by the term Eloah. When used in the root form Jah, God must be assumed.
The use of the term Jah performs a function in the texts. It occurs some forty-nine times completing seven cycles. It has a special sense as Jehovah has become our salvation. It completes the 49 times or cycles to enter into the Holy of Holies on the Fiftieth which is the entire symbolism of the Temple of God which temple we are.
The temple was named the Temple of Yaho from the Aramaic letters of the Temple at Elephantine (see Pritchard, The Ancient Near East etc., vol I, pp. 278-280). Jah is thus referred to anciently as Yaho from at least before 407 BC. Thus the correct form for Jehovah is Yahovah or Yahovih dependent upon the suffix used in reference to the entity. It is pronounced Yahoweh or Yahowih. The term Yahweh is thus also incorrect (see also the paper Abracadabra: The Meaning of Names (No. 240)).
Care must be taken to identify the Yahoweh that is the object of worship. Unless the entity is identified and understood as the supreme God, Yahovah of Hosts who is Eloah, then the monotheism of God is compromised and Binitarianism is again introduced.
The name Jehovah or Yahovah is combined with ten other titles. They are in the order they appear in the Hebrew texts as:
Jehovah-Jireh Jehovah will see or provide (Gen. 22:14).
Jehovah-Ropheka Jehovah that heals you (Ex. 15:26).
Jehovah-Nissi Jehovah my banner (Ex. 17:15).
Jehovah-Mekaddishkem Jehovah that does sanctify you (Ex. 31:13; Lev. 20:8; 21:8; 22:32; Ezek. 20:12).
Jehovah-Shalom Jehovah [send] peace (Judg. 6:24).
Jehovah-Zeba’oth Jehovah of Hosts (1Sam. 1:3 and frequently).
Jehovah-Zidkenu Jehovah our righteousness (Jer. 23:6; 33:16).
Jehovah-Shammah Jehovah is there (Ezek. 48:35).
Jehovah-’Elyon Jehovah Most High (Ps. 7:17; 47:2; 97:9).
Jehovah-Ro’I Jehovah my Shepherd (Ps. 23:1).
The Twenty-Third Psalm uses seven of the attributes conferred by the names of God:
Verse 1; conveys concept 1 (Jehovah-Jireh).
Verse 2; conveys concept 5 (Jehovah-Shalom).
Verse 3; conveys concepts 2 and 7 (Jehovah-Ropheka and Jehovah-Zidkenu).
Verse 4; conveys concept 8 (Jehovah-Shammah).
Verse 5; conveys concepts 3 and 4 (Jehovah-Nissi and Jehovah Mekaddishkem).
The Companion Bible makes a series of arguments (App. 4) for El as being essentially the almighty although the word is never so rendered. This context is in fact as El Shaddai. The use of El is thought of as God the Omnipotent. Elohim is used in the sense of God as Creator because God creates and ordains law in the hands of intermediaries. Elohim is plural. El is used as the root for qualitative description of God. It is only Eloah that is the God Who Wills and is the one object of worship of His people (see also Comp. Bible. App. 4). El is thought of as the God who knows all (first occurring in Gen. 14:18-22) and sees all (Gen. 16:13) and performs all things for His people (Ps. 57:2) and in whom all the divine attributes are concentrated (Comp. Bible ibid.). There is however the fact that El is the root which occurs in names and titles which indicates that it is simply the root from which qualitative difference is demonstrated in the entities that act under delegation. For example the Angel of Jehovah is also the El Bethel or the God of the House of God. In other words, it demonstrates authority within structure. Only Eloah is the singular extension of worship.
Eloah is the Elohim of Elohim; He who anoints (Ps. 45:6-7; Heb. 1:8-9). Eloah is the God Who Wills. This God is the object of worship and the central and creative figure of the Elohim. This is He who willed and by whom all things exist and were created (Rev. 4:11).
Revelation 4:11 "Worthy art thou, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power, for thou didst create all things, and by thy will they existed and were created." (RSV)
This being is the object of worship of the twenty-four elders and the lamb who is Messiah (Rev. 4:1-5:14). Messiah is the onlyborn son and Eloah is the Father from Proverbs 30:4-5. The first occurrence of this name associates it with worship (Deut. 32:15,17). It is used in contrast to idols and hence is the living God. This is the God who alone is immortal (1Tim. 6:16). All others derive their eternal life from Him by will and direction.
El Elyon is the name applied to Eloah as the Most High El. He is the Most High God. He is God the Father as we know from the Greek rendering of the name in Luke 1:35. El Elyon is the entity who divided the nations (Deut. 32:8). He gave Israel as Jehovah’s portion. Thus Jehovah here is the Jehovah of Israel and subordinate to Eloah or El Elyon. It is Eloah or Elyon that is the object of worship. Israel did not worship its subordinate elohim. Note Deuteronomy 32:8 has been altered in the Masoretic text to read according to the number of the Children of Israel rather than the original sons of God or the number of the angels (LXX) or eliym or the Gods (DSS).
Genesis 14:18-22 shows that the Most High God is the possessor of heaven and earth and that Melchisedek is priest of the Most High God. Messiah is thus also priest of the Most High God and cannot himself be that God. One cannot be one’s own priest. These texts should be compared with Zechariah 6:13 and 14:9.
Zechariah 6:13 It is he who shall build the temple of the LORD, and shall bear royal honor, and shall sit and rule upon his throne. And there shall be a priest by his throne, and peaceful understanding shall be between them both."' (RSV)
Thus we understand that the throne of the Most High is ruled over by Messiah under delegation. The unity of the kingdom is derived from being under the will of Eloah.
Zechariah 14:9 And the LORD will become king over all the earth; on that day the LORD will be one and his name one. (RSV)
Jehovah (tr. Lord) will be king over all the earth. Then Jehovah will be one (ehad) and his name one (ehad). The oneness that is conferred from the rulership of Jehovah is that God becomes all in all (1Cor. 15:28; Eph. 4:6).
Ephesians 4:6 one God and Father of us all, who is above all and through all and in all. (RSV)
God is thus the Father only and He is above all through all and in all. Christ is included in this context.
1Corinthians 15:28 When all things are subjected to him, then the Son himself will also be subjected to him who put all things under him, that God may be everything to every one. (RSV)
1Corinthians 15:28 And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all. (KJV)
When all is subdued, then the son will himself be subjected to God who put all things under him so that God may be all in all. The RSV text is incorrect seemingly from a desire to defeat the obvious non-Trinitarian conclusions drawn from this text. God will be in all as He is in Christ.
The Elyon is over all the earth (Ps. 83:18). The title occurs 36 times or 6 x 6 which has a significance relating to the material creation.
Shaddai refers to the Almighty in the sense of supplying all the needs of the people. It is used when Abraham is called out to walk before Him in Genesis 17:1. The sense of being called out was applied to Abraham and is also applied to the Church in 2Corinthians 6:18.
2Corinthians 6:17-18 17 Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you, 18 And will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. (KJV)
Once again we speak of God the Father. The term is used as El Shaddai.
Adon. is one of three titles, (viz. Adon, Adonai, Adonim). They are generally rendered Lord. It refers to the Lord as ruler in the earth. It is distinguished from Adonai which is used as the being carrying out God’s purpose in the earth. (The Lord in his relation to the earth (Comp. Bible ibid.). The vowel points associated with Jehovah when used with Adon render or converts it to Adonai. This was deliberately done in 134 passages which are preserved and given in the Massorah (§§ 107-115) (see also Comp. Bible App. 32 for the list).
Adonim is the plural of Adon and is never used of man (Comp. Bible ibid.). It is simplified that an Adon may rule others who do not belong to him. Hence without the article it is used of men. Bullinger does not deal adequately with the plurality and singularity in the usage of the words in relation to divine beings. There is no doubt that the usage of Adonai and elohim were used to make specific distinction between the two entities Jehovah and Jehovah of Hosts. Jehovah on its own (SHD 3068) is the national elohi of Israel (see Strongs) and is not the object of worship. Jehovih (SHD 3069) is the superior of Jehovah, the elohi of Israel who is also termed the Angel of Jehovah.
Jehovah with other terms and as Adonai Jehovah is rendered Lord God and is thus distinct from the singular usage. There are two terms rendered Lord God and that is Adonai Jehovah and Jehovah Elohim. The single term elohim is often used of angels and particularly the Angel of Jehovah who is the elohim anointed in Psalm 45:6-7 and who is Christ (Heb. 1:8-9).
Therefore God your God has anointed you with the Oil of gladness above your partners.
In the same way we are all to become elohim under His name and power (Zech 12:8) within the monotheist structure laid down in the Bible concepts. It is written I said ye are Gods: Sons of the Most High all of you and Scripture cannot be broken (John 10:34-35). Binitarianism/Trinitarianism limits the understanding of the concept that We shall rule as God.