Christian Churches of God

No. F044v





Commentary on Acts

Part 5

(Edition 1.0 20211126-20211126)

Commentary on Chapters 19-23.


Christian Churches of God

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Commentary on Acts Part 5

Intent of the Chapters

Chapter 19

Baptism as a system

As we saw from chapter 18 there were two types of baptism extant at the time. The first was the baptism for repentance which was that of John the Baptist and of which Christ himself took part when he began his ministry. This was a precursor to the Church which began when John was placed in prison after the Passover of 28 CE. The church was then prepared but the church was not given the power of the Holy Spirit until Christ had qualified by his sacrifice and the Resurrection from the dead and his acceptance at the throne of God as the Wave Sheaf Offering (No. 106B) on the First Day of the Week (called now Sunday by the Baal worshippers), after his resurrection at the end of the Sabbath Day just before dark. (cf. Timing of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection (No. 159)). Christ then returned that day and spoke with the apostles and stayed with them for forty days during which time he went to Tartarus and spoke with the Fallen Host imprisoned there of his role and spoke to them of Repentance also and their impending Judgment in the Second Resurrection (cf. Judgment of the Demons (No. 080) (Paul’s awareness of this fact is at 1Cor. 6:3).  (cf. also Repentance and Baptism (No. 052); The Forty Days following Christ’s  Resurrection (No. 159a)).


Christ instructed the church then to remain at Jerusalem until Pentecost to receive the Holy Spirit. They obeyed his instructions and then the entire Church received the Holy Spirit (No 117) and they were dispersed to take up their duties as instructed (cf. Establishment of the Church under the Seventy (No. 122D).


Those of John’s disciples that did not join Christ before the Passover of 30 CE did not therefore remain there until Pentecost and did not receive the Holy Spirit and were thus unaware of its function. To regularise them as servants in the church they had to have hands laid on them for the Holy Spirit. All baptism at this time was of repentant adults and no infants were baptised. Infant Baptism was not introduced until the Trinitarians took over the Church in Rome after 381 CE. (cf. also Antinomian Denial of Baptism (No. 164E)). Adult baptism remained with the Churches of God until the present day.


The Baal worshippers of the Sun and Mystery cults also came into the church and they penetrated the church especially from Rome. Here at Ephesus two of the Seventy ordained by Christ (Lk. 10:1,17) slid back into idolatry through the sale of idols by silversmiths (cf. 122d above). By 111 CE at Rome they introduced Sunday Worship alongside the Sabbath and introduced the Easter Festival of the Goddess in 154 and by 192 they forced the church into Schism (cf. The Quartodeciman Disputes (No. 277). Origins of Christmas and Easter (No. 235),  and attacked the Laws of God (cf. Antinomian Attacks on the Covenant of God (096D); Antinomian Destruction of Christianity by Misuse of Scripture (164C); Antinomian Attacks on the Law of God (No. 164D). Anyone who espouses these views shows thereby they are Baal worshippers of the Sun and Mystery Cults. These people also misrepresented the theology of the Bible (cf. Binitarian and Trinitarian Misrepresention of the Early Theology of the Godhead (No. 127B)).


Apollos at Ephesus

For Apollos’ activity in Corinth see 1Cor. 1:12; 3:1-9; 21-23). They then went to Ephesus. Paul had gone through the upper country and came to Ephesus. (This ministry was to last two years (vv. 1-19 cf. 20:31 and forms the background of 1 and 2Corinthians) It is considered an Alexandrian well versed in the Scriptures may well treat them allegorically. It was therefore necessary, when Aquila and Priscilla made Apollos aware of the Holy Spirit as we see in Chapter 18, that Paul is here recorded in Chapter 19 as having found these disciples at Ephesus (v. 1). He then asked them concerning the Holy Spirit and they said that they had never even heard of the Holy Spirit (v. 2). He asked them of what baptism they were and they told him John’s baptism. Paul then explained the distinction between the baptism for Repentance and that the baptism of Jesus who came after John was the one to be believed and followed.  He then rebaptised them in the name of the Lord and then they had hands laid on them and the Holy Spirit came upon them and the twelve of them spoke with tongues and prophesied (vv. 3-7).


Then Paul entered the synagogue and spoke boldly for three months arguing and pleading about the Kingdom of God (v. 8).  However, some would not believe and spoke evil of the “Way” (which the church was also called) before the congregation and he withdrew from them taking the disciples with him and argued daily in the house of Tyrannus (v. 9). This ministry continued there for two years and all the area of Asia heard the words of the Lord both Jews and Greeks. God did extraordinary miracles by the hands of Paul. Handkerchiefs or aprons were carried away and healed the sick, and evil spirits came out of them (vv. 11-12).


Power Removed from the Levitical Authorities

It is at this time that the Levites and the Seven Sons of the High Priest named Sceva tried to capture the power of the disciples and the church by trying to command a demon to go out of a man in the name of Jesus Christ; but the demon rebuked them by saying “Jesus I know and Paul I know, but who are you?”  Then the man in whom the demon was leapt upon them and the seven men were attacked and fled from the house naked and wounded (vv. 13-16). This was a powerful witness to the Jews and the Priesthood. This event became known to all the residents of Ephesus both Jews and Greeks and fear fell upon them all and the name of the Lord Jesus was extolled (v. 17).


Many of those who were now believers came confessing and divulging their practices in the Mystery Cults and the magic arts. They burnt their books there in the sight of all. They were valued at 50,000 pieces of silver. They stated that the word of the Lord grew and prevailed mightily.


Now after these events Paul resolved in the Spirit to pass through Macedonia and go to Achaia and go to Jerusalem saying that after going there he would go to Rome (cf. Rom. 1:13-15; 15:22-35). He then sent Timothy and Erastus (cf. an inscription from Corinth mentions an official, a Roman aedile, by this name) (Rom. 16:23; 2Tim. 4:20), into Macedonia while he remained in Asia for a little while (vv. 21-22).


At that time there arose no little stir concerning the Way for a man named Demetrius, a silversmith who made silver shrines at the Temple of Artemis, brought no little business to the craftsmen. They were gathered together with the workmen of like occupation. They considered that Paul was causing many to turn away from idols made by hands and they saw that their occupation and wealth was in jeopardy not only at Ephesus but also from Paul’s teachings in all Asia (vv. 23-26). They saw that not only their trade may come into disrepute but also that the Temple of Artemis may be of no account and that she be deposed from her position whom Asia and the world worship (v. 27).  When they heard this they were enraged and cried out “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians.” (v. 28) The Receptus says “Great is Diana of the Ephesians” but that is not true as the Temple was of Artemis of Ephesus (one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world). There was no Temple of Diana at Ephesus (cf. also v. 34) although they are of a similar nature, which is probably why the authors changed the wording to be more familiar to the British and other readers.


The city was filled with confusion and they rushed into the theatre dragging with them Gaius and Aristarchus, Macedonians who were Paul’s companions in travel. Paul wished to go in among the crowd but the disciples would not let him and some of the Asiarchs (honorary title of civic benefactors in the Roman province of Asia) who were friends of his also begged him not go in. The assembly was in confusion with some crying one thing or another, with most not knowing why they had come together (vv. 29-32). The Jews put forward Alexander who was a Jew but the crowd recognised he was a Jew and again shouted Great is Artemis of the Ephesians (v. 34).


The town clerk quieted the crowd and said: “Men of Ephesus what man is there that does not know the city of the Ephesians is Temple Keeper of the Great Artemis and the sacred stone (meteorite?) that fell from the sky. Seeing then that these things cannot be contradicted you ought to be quiet and do nothing rash; for you have brought these men here who are neither sacrilegious nor blasphemers of our goddess” (vv. 35-37) (cities were often honoured with the title of keeper of the temple of the god). He then suggested that if Demetrious and the craftsmen had a complaint they should make then in the courts before the proconsuls. But if they sought anything further (other ancient texts read should there be other matters) it should be settled in the regular assembly (vv. 38-39). He told them they were in danger of being charged with rioting, there being no cause in justification for them to have caused the commotion. He then dismissed the assembly (vv. 40-41).


Chapter 20

The last visit to Greece 

After the uproar at Ephesus the disciples were sent for by Paul and he exhorted them and then departed for Macedonia (24:17, 1Cor. 16:1-4; 2Cor. 8:23). The Sopater of Boerea the son of Pyrrhus in verse 4 is perhaps the Sosipater of Romans 16:21. The others listed in verse 4 are the Thessalonians Aristarchus and Secundus, and Gaius of Derbe and Timothy and the Asians Tychicus and Trophimus who went on to Troas and were waiting for them there. Paul and Sopater kept the Days of Unleavened Bread at Philippi and then sailed on to Troas after the Last Holy Day of Unleavened Bread and stayed for seven days to the New Moon of the Second month. (All of the disciples and the entire Church in the first two centuries kept all the Biblical Feasts (cf. 14:3 n. to RSV) in accordance with the Temple or God’s Calendar (No. 156) except for Rome from 154 CE after the election of Anicetus and the Schism caused by Victor in 192 CE (cf. Quartodeciman Disputes (No. 277).) It appears that the New Moon on the Second month of that year fell on or before the Sabbath, occurring no later than the ninth day after the Last Holy Day of the Feast, and the disciples and the church met on the evening of the First day of the week intending to leave at daybreak on the morning of the First day.


The correct interpretation is that after the Sabbath, on the First day of the week or Sunday, which began at Dark after the Sabbath, they were gathered together for a meal. They were not gathered as a Sabbath meeting. That had already passed.  They intended to depart on the morning of the First day and they stayed up until midnight talking in the upper chamber.  Tychicus, a young man, was seated in the window, and, as Paul talked on, he fell from the window on the third story. Paul went down and ascertained he was alive and then went up and they had more to eat and then Paul continued teaching them until daybreak. He then departed. They did not regard this day as any Holy Day or Sabbath. The others were very relieved that young Tychicus was alive (vv. 7-12).


They set sail for Assos in order to pick up Paul there as he had gone there by land. Taking him on board there they went on to Mytelene and then the following day they came across to Chios; and then next day to Samos; and the next day to Miletus (modern Balat), as Paul had decided to sail past Ephesus in order to hasten to Jerusalem in order to be there by the Feast of Pentecost (vv. 13-16).


From Miletus he sent for the elders at Ephesus to meet him there (v. 17). When they came to him he addressed them.  He spoke of his time with them from the first day he set foot in Asia teaching them in public and from house to house in groups, both of Jews and Greeks, of repentance to God and of faith in Christ (vv. 18- 21).


He then stated he was going to Jerusalem, not knowing what awaited him there, except that the Holy Spirit testified to him that in each of the cities imprisonment and affliction await him. He then qualified that by stating that he did not account his life of any value. His desire was to accomplish the mission given to him by Christ to testify to the gospel of the grace of God (vv. 22-24). He then stated that all there would not see his face again (v. 25) (a premonition of his martyrdom, cf. 2Tim. 4:6). He declared that he was innocent of the blood of all of them as he had declared to them the whole counsel of God (vv. 26-27). He instructed them to take heed to themselves and to the whole flock in which the Holy Spirit had made them overseers (Gr. bishops cf. Titus 1:5-7, elders of v. 17; cf. 1Pet. 2:25) of the Church of God which He had obtained with the blood of His own son (v. 28).  He stated that he knew that after his departure wolves would come in among them not sparing the flock. From among them men would arise speaking perverse things and drawing the disciples away after them (vv. 29-30) (cf. Mat. 7:15; Mk. 13:22).


He then told them to be alert and remember that he had taught them day and night for three years admonishing everyone with tears. He then commended them to God and to the word of His Grace which is able to build them up and to give them their inheritance among all those who are sanctified (vv. 31-32).


He stated to them that he coveted no one’s gold or silver or apparel and that they knew that he worked with his own hands for his livelihood and for those with him (vv. 33-34) (cf. 1Cor. 9:1-18; 2Cor. 11:7-11). He stated that he had by so doing shown them that by so toiling they must help the weak. Remembering the words of the Lord Jesus who said it is more blessed to give that receive (v. 35) (not found in the gospels).


When he had spoken he then knelt down and prayed with them all. They all wept and embraced and kissed him; lamenting that they would see him no more and then they brought him to the ship (vv. 36-38).


Chapter 21

From 20:7 to 21:14 we see the development of Paul’s return to Palestine at the conclusion of the third missionary journey. The journey went to Cos and the next day to Rhodes and to Patara (other ancient authorities add and to Myra) (v. 1). And having found a ship they boarded and set sail (v. 2). They arrived in sight of Cyprus and keeping it on the left they sailed to Syria and landed at Tyre, where the ship unloaded its cargo (v. 3). They sought out the disciples and stayed there seven days. Through the Holy Spirit they told Paul not to go on to Jerusalem (v. 4). When the days were ended, they departed on their journey and the disciples with their wives and children took them to the city and outside on the beach they knelt down and prayed and bade one another farewell. Paul and his companions boarded the ship and the families returned home (vv. 5-6). They sailed from Tyre to Ptolemais (modern Acre near Haifa). They greeted the brethren there and stayed for one day (v. 7). In the morning they departed for Caesarea and came to the house of Philip the evangelist, who was one of the seven, and stayed with him. He had four unmarried daughters, each with the gift of prophecy (vv. 8-9). While they spent some days there a prophet named Agabus (11:28) came down from Judea. He took Paul’s girdle and bound his own feet and hands and said “Thus says the Holy Spirit: ‘So shall the Jews at Jerusalem  bind the man who owns this girdle and deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles (vv. 10-11) (a symbolic act of the prophets. cf. also Isa. 20:2-6).    


When they all heard this they all begged Paul not to go up to Jerusalem. He said: “What are you doing weeping and breaking my heart? For I am ready not only to be imprisoned but even to die at Jerusalem for the name of the Lord Jesus.” And when he would not be persuaded, they ceased and said “The will of the Lord be done.” (vv. 12-14)  


They then made ready and went up to Jerusalem accompanied with some of the disciples of Caesarea. They went to the house of Mnason of Cyprus, one of the early disciples and lodged there (v. 16).


Paul’s Conformity to the Law of God (L1)

The brethren at Jerusalem received them gladly. On the following day they went in to James and all the elders were present. After greeting them he related one by one the things that God had done among the Gentiles through Paul’s ministry (vv. 17-19. When the elders heard it they glorified God. They said to him: “You see brother how many thousands there are among the Jews who have believed. They are all zealous for the Law. And they have been told about you that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses: teaching them not to circumcise their children or observe the customs.


The elders said that the Jews will certainly hear that Paul has come and so they told him to go with four others that were under a vow (undoubtedly a Nazarite vow (Num. 6:1-21) and go with them and purify yourself and pay their expenses so that they may shave their heads. Thus the tales they have heard are untrue. It was Jewish propaganda, and Paul himself lived in observance of the law (vv. 22-24), (which the church all did until the end of the Second century at Rome where paganism entered the church and caused a schism with Rome in 192 under the heretic bishop Victor (cf. Origins of Christmas and Easter (No. 235) and the Quartodeciman Disputes (No. 277)).


The elders then reiterate the decrees from the Acts 15 Conference (15:22) concerning the exemptions granted to the Gentiles where they were exempted from the rituals and that they should abstain from food sacrificed to idols and from blood and that which is strangled; and also from unchastity (v. 25). Paul was present at the conference but the purpose here was to tell him what they had done in relation to informing the other Gentile Churches.


The Churches of God have kept the Food Laws (No. 015) since 27 CE through to the present day. Those that do not are not bona fide members of the Church of God.


Then we see that Paul took the men and the following day he and they all purified themselves and he and they went into the Temple to give notification when the days of purification would be fulfilled and the offering presented for every one of them (v. 26).


Paul’s Arrest and Defence

When the seven days were almost ended the Jews from Asia who had seen Paul in the Temple stirred up the crowd and laid hands on Paul. They cried out: “Men of Israel help! This is the man who is teaching men everywhere against the people and the Law and this place. Moreover he also brought Greeks into the Temple and he has defiled this Holy Place” (vv. 27-28). The fact was that they had previously seen Trophimus the Ephesian with him and had presumed that Paul had brought him with him into the Temple (v. 29) (cf. 20:4; 2Tim. 4:20).


These lies of the Jews later suited the Sunday keeping antinomian Baal worshippers in order to break the church free of the Law of God. The Church kept the Temple Calendar (No. 156) and the Pharisees did not have control of the Temple as it was under the Sadducees until its destruction. The Pharisees took control with their traditions after 70 CE but did not issue the Modern Hillel or Jewish calendar until 358 CE (No. 195C). The church never kept it under Christ and the Apostles nor the subsequent elders and thus never accepted it until the 20th century judaisers of the Sardis groups brought it in.


After the Jews had aroused the city and they seized Paul and dragged him out of the Temple and at once the gates were shut. As they were trying to kill Paul word came to the Tribune of the Cohort (the garrison at the Antonia adjacent to the Temple) that all Jerusalem was in confusion. He at once took soldiers and their centurions and ran down to them. When they saw the Tribune and the soldiers they stopped beating Paul. Then the Tribune arrested him and bound him with two chains. He asked him who he was and what he had done (vv. 30-33).  Thus Paul’s case came into Roman or Gentile hands and not that of the Jews who caused him to be bound.


Those in the crowd shouted differing reasons and the Tribune could not hear because of the uproar and so he ordered Paul be brought into the barracks. When he came to the steps he had to be carried by the soldiers because of the violence of the crowd, for the mob followed crying “away with him” (vv. 34-36). Paul asked to speak with him. The Tribune mistook Paul for an Egyptian who recently incited 4000 of the Assassins into the wilderness (cf. Josephus WofJ ii. 13.5). Paul answered him and said: “I am a Jew from Tarsus in Cilicia saying he was a citizen of no mean city.” Paul then begged to be allowed to speak to the people. He was given leave and he stood on the steps and motioned to the people and then addressed them in Hebrew (vv. 37-40). (Some authorities consider it may have been Aramaic (e.g  RSV n).)


Chapter 22

Paul said: “Brethren and fathers, hear the defence which I now make before you.”

When they heard him address them in Hebrew they were quieter. And he said: “I am a Jew born at Tarsus in Cilicia, but brought up (educated) in this city at the feet of Gamaliel (5:34), educated according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God as you are this day. I persecuted this Way (early title of the church) to the death, binding and delivering to prison both men and women, as the High Priest and the whole council of elders bear me witness. From them I received letters to the brethren and I journeyed to Damascus to take those also who were there and bring them in bonds to Jerusalem to be punished (vv. 1-5). 


As I made my journey and drew near to Damascus, about noon, a great light from heaven suddenly shone about me. I fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to me, Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?  Paul then answered “Who are you Lord?” The being answered: “I am Jesus of Nazareth whom you are persecuting.” Paul then said:  Now those who were with me saw the light but did not hear the voice of the one speaking to me (9:7 says they heard the voice but saw no one). Paul said:”What shall I do Lord?” And the Lord said to me, “Rise, and go into Damascus, and there you will be told all that is appointed for you to do.” Paul said: “And when I could not see because of the brightness of the light I was led by the hand by those that were with me and came into Damascus” (vv. 6-11). (Similar account to 9:1-18)


“And Ananias, a devout man according to the law, well spoken of by all the Jews who lived there, came to me and said to me: ‘Brother Saul, receive your sight.’ And in that very hour I received my sight and saw him. He said: The God of our fathers appointed you to know his will and to see the just one and to hear a voice from his mouth, for you will be a witness for him to all men of what you have seen and heard. And now why do you wait? Rise and be baptised, and wash away your sins calling on his name’ (vv. 12-16). Paul continued: “When I had returned to Jerusalem and was praying in the Temple I fell into a trance and saw him saying to me: ‘Make haste and get quickly out of Jerusalem because they will not accept your testimony about me.’ And Paul said: “Lord they themselves know that in every synagogue I imprisoned and beat those who believed in you. And when the blood of Stephen your witness was shed I also was standing by and approving, and keeping the garments of those who killed him.” (The Official Witness as to the death by stoning had to witness the killing and supervise the execution.) Paul then says that Christ said: ‘Depart for I will send you far away to the Gentiles’ (vv. 17-21). 


Up until now they listened to him; and then they lifted up their voices and said: “Away with such a fellow from the earth! For he ought not to live.” And as they cried out and waved their garments and threw dust in the air, the Tribune commanded him to be brought into the barracks and  examined by scourging (to determine the truth) as to why they shouted against him. They had bound him and were about to scourge him but Roman law would not permit that to be done to a Roman citizen who was not condemned. Knowing that to be so, Paul asked the centurion: “Is it lawful for you to scourge a man who is a Roman Citizen and uncondemned?”


The crowd were incensed because Paul’s comments showed that salvation was of the gentiles.


The Centurion went to the Tribune and made him aware of the facts and the Tribune then made further enquiry of Paul. He confirmed that he was a Roman citizen.  The Tribune said that he paid a substantial sum for his citizenship and when he heard that Paul was born a Roman Citizen he was even more concerned, as he was from a family of some standing. Those who were about to scourge him withdrew immediately (vv. 24-29).


Paul before the Sanhedrin

However desiring to know the real reason as to why the Jews accused him he unbound him and summoned the Chief Priests and all the council and he set Paul before them (v. 30).


Chapter 23

Paul stood before the council and the Chief Priests and said: “Brethren I have lived before God in all good conscience up until this day.” The High Priest Ananias commanded that he be struck on the mouth. Then Paul said to him: “God shall strike you, you whitewashed wall! (refers to a contaminated tomb, cf. Mat. 23:27). Are you to judge me according to the law yet contrary to the law you order me to be struck?” (vv. 1-3). (Ananias was High Priest in the reigns of Claudius and Nero was assassinated ca 66 CE.)


Those that stood nearby said: “Would you revile the High Priest? Paul said: “I did not know brethren that he was the High Priest” for it is written “You shall not speak evil of the ruler of our people” (from Ex 22:28: You shall not revile the elohim or a ruler of your people).  However, when Paul saw that one part were Sadducees (who did not believe in the resurrection) and the other were Pharisees (who did believe in the resurrection), he cried out that he was a Pharisee, son of a Pharisee, and he was on trial for his hope in the resurrection of the dead. After he said this the assembly was divided and in dissension.  The text then explains that the Sadducees believe in no resurrection nor in Angels nor in Spirits but the Pharisees acknowledge them all (vv. 4-8).


Consequently the scribes of the Pharisees stood up and said: We find no fault in this man. What if a spirit or an angel did speak to him? The dissension then rose and the Tribune was afraid that Paul would be torn in pieces by them and so he commanded that the soldiers go down and retrieve him and he be taken back to the barracks (vv. 9-10). In understanding this fatal flaw in the theology of the Sadducees he was able to divide them and escape.


The following night Christ stood by him and said: “Take courage, for as you have testified about me in Jerusalem so you must bear witness about me also at Rome” (v. 11).


When it was day the Jews made an oath that they would neither eat nor drink until they had killed Paul (v. 12). There were more than forty in this conspiracy (v. 13). They said to the chief priests and elders that they had made the oath not to eat or drink until they had killed Paul. They then asked the Council to give notice to the Tribune to bring him down to the Council as though they were to determine the case more exactly and they declared they would kill him before he got there (vv. 14-15).


The son of Paul’s sister heard of the planned ambush; so he entered the barracks and told Paul. Paul then called one of the centurions and told him to take the young man to the Tribune as he has something to tell him. So the centurion took him to the Tribune and said that he had something to tell the Tribune. The Tribune took him aside and Paul’s nephew told the Tribune of the planned ambush of the forty. The Tribune dismissed the young man charging him to tell no one that he had informed the Tribune of this (vv. 16-22).


The Tribune called two centurions and said: At the third hour of the night get ready two hundred soldiers and seventy horsemen and two hundred spearmen to go as far as Caesarea. Provide mounts for Paul to ride and bring him to Felix the governor. He then wrote  a letter to this effect:

Claudius Lysias to his Excellency the governor Felix greeting. This man was seized by the Jews and was about to be killed by them, when I came upon them with the soldier and rescued him, having learned that he was a Roman citizen. And desiring to know the charge on which they accused him I brought him down to the council. I found that he was accused about questions of their law but charged with nothing deserving death or imprisonment. And when it was disclosed to me that there would be a plot against the man, I sent him to you at once, ordering his accusers also to state before you what they have against him.” (vv. 23-30) 


Thus under Biblical law the false witness was to be punished as they themselves has sought to inflict punishment unjustly on the man Paul.


So the soldiers, according to their instructions, brought Paul by night to Antipatris and on the morrow they returned to the barracks leaving the horsemen to go on with Paul to Caesarea and delivered the letter to the governor and presented Paul also before him. Felix asked from what province he belonged and when he learned he was from Cilicia, he said: I will hear you when your accusers arrive.” And he commanded Paul be guarded in Herod’s Praetorium (vv. 31-35).  


The hearing with Ananias is contained in chapter 24 on in F044vi.


ACTS Chapters 19-23 (RSV)


Chapter 19

1While Apol'los was at Corinth, Paul passed through the upper country and came to Ephesus. There he found some disciples. 2And he said to them, "Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?" And they said, "No, we have never even heard that there is a Holy Spirit." 3And he said, "Into what then were you baptized?" They said, "Into John's baptism." 4And Paul said, "John baptized with the baptism of repentance, telling the people to believe in the one who was to come after him, that is, Jesus." 5On hearing this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. 6And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Spirit came on them; and they spoke with tongues and prophesied. 7There were about twelve of them in all. 8And he entered the synagogue and for three months spoke boldly, arguing and pleading about the kingdom of God; 9but when some were stubborn and disbelieved, speaking evil of the Way before the congregation, he withdrew from them, taking the disciples with him, and argued daily in the hall of Tyran'nus. 10This continued for two years, so that all the residents of Asia heard the word of the Lord, both Jews and Greeks. 11And God did extraordinary miracles by the hands of Paul, 12so that handkerchiefs or aprons were carried away from his body to the sick, and diseases left them and the evil spirits came out of them. 13Then some of the itinerant Jewish exorcists undertook to pronounce the name of the Lord Jesus over those who had evil spirits, saying, "I adjure you by the Jesus whom Paul preaches." 14Seven sons of a Jewish high priest named Sceva were doing this. 15But the evil spirit answered them, "Jesus I know, and Paul I know; but who are you?" 16And the man in whom the evil spirit was leaped on them, mastered all of them, and overpowered them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded. 17And this became known to all residents of Ephesus, both Jews and Greeks; and fear fell upon them all; and the name of the Lord Jesus was extolled. 18Many also of those who were now believers came, confessing and divulging their practices. 19And a number of those who practiced magic arts brought their books together and burned them in the sight of all; and they counted the value of them and found it came to fifty thousand pieces of silver. 20So the word of the Lord grew and prevailed mightily. 21Now after these events Paul resolved in the Spirit to pass through Macedo'nia and Acha'ia and go to Jerusalem, saying, "After I have been there, I must also see Rome." 22And having sent into Macedo'nia two of his helpers, Timothy and Eras'tus, he himself stayed in Asia for a while. 23About that time there arose no little stir concerning the Way. 24For a man named Deme'trius, a silversmith, who made silver shrines of Ar'temis, brought no little business to the craftsmen. 25These he gathered together, with the workmen of like occupation, and said, "Men, you know that from this business we have our wealth. 26And you see and hear that not only at Ephesus but almost throughout all Asia this Paul has persuaded and turned away a considerable company of people, saying that gods made with hands are not gods. 27And there is danger not only that this trade of ours may come into disrepute but also that the temple of the great goddess Ar'temis may count for nothing, and that she may even be deposed from her magnificence, she whom all Asia and the world worship." 28When they heard this they were enraged, and cried out, "Great is Ar'temis of the Ephesians!" 29So the city was filled with the confusion; and they rushed together into the theater, dragging with them Ga'ius and Aristar'chus, Macedo'nians who were Paul's companions in travel. 30Paul wished to go in among the crowd, but the disciples would not let him; 31some of the A'si-archs also, who were friends of his, sent to him and begged him not to venture into the theater. 32Now some cried one thing, some another; for the assembly was in confusion, and most of them did not know why they had come together. 33Some of the crowd prompted Alexander, whom the Jews had put forward. And Alexander motioned with his hand, wishing to make a defense to the people. 34But when they recognized that he was a Jew, for about two hours they all with one voice cried out, "Great is Ar'temis of the Ephesians!" 35And when the town clerk had quieted the crowd, he said, "Men of Ephesus, what man is there who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is temple keeper of the great Ar'temis, and of the sacred stone that fell from the sky? 36Seeing then that these things cannot be contradicted, you ought to be quiet and do nothing rash. 37For you have brought these men here who are neither sacrilegious nor blasphemers of our goddess. 38If therefore Deme'trius and the craftsmen with him have a complaint against any one, the courts are open, and there are proconsuls; let them bring charges against one another. 39But if you seek anything further, it shall be settled in the regular assembly. 40For we are in danger of being charged with rioting today, there being no cause that we can give to justify this commotion." 41And when he had said this, he dismissed the assembly.


Chapter 20

1After the uproar ceased, Paul sent for the disciples and having exhorted them took leave of them and departed for Macedo'nia. 2When he had gone through these parts and had given them much encouragement, he came to Greece. 3There he spent three months, and when a plot was made against him by the Jews as he was about to set sail for Syria, he determined to return through Macedo'nia. 4Sop'ater of Beroe'a, the son of Pyrrhus, accompanied him; and of the Thessalo'nians, Aristar'chus and Secun'dus; and Ga'ius of Derbe, and Timothy; and the Asians, Tych'icus and Troph'imus. 5These went on and were waiting for us at Tro'as, 6but we sailed away from Philip'pi after the days of Unleavened Bread, and in five days we came to them at Tro'as, where we stayed for seven days. 7On the first day of the week, when we were gathered together to break bread, Paul talked with them, intending to depart on the morrow; and he prolonged his speech until midnight. 8There were many lights in the upper chamber where we were gathered. 9And a young man named Eu'tychus was sitting in the window. He sank into a deep sleep as Paul talked still longer; and being overcome by sleep, he fell down from the third story and was taken up dead. 10But Paul went down and bent over him, and embracing him said, "Do not be alarmed, for his life is in him." 11And when Paul had gone up and had broken bread and eaten, he conversed with them a long while, until daybreak, and so departed. 12And they took the lad away alive, and were not a little comforted. 13But going ahead to the ship, we set sail for Assos, intending to take Paul aboard there; for so he had arranged, intending himself to go by land. 14And when he met us at Assos, we took him on board and came to Mityle'ne. 15And sailing from there we came the following day opposite Chi'os; the next day we touched at Samos; and the day after that we came to Mile'tus. 16For Paul had decided to sail past Ephesus, so that he might not have to spend time in Asia; for he was hastening to be at Jerusalem, if possible, on the day of Pentecost. 17And from Mile'tus he sent to Ephesus and called to him the elders of the church. 18And when they came to him, he said to them: "You yourselves know how I lived among you all the time from the first day that I set foot in Asia, 19serving the Lord with all humility and with tears and with trials which befell me through the plots of the Jews; 20how I did not shrink from declaring to you anything that was profitable, and teaching you in public and from house to house, 21testifying both to Jews and to Greeks of repentance to God and of faith in our Lord Jesus Christ. 22And now, behold, I am going to Jerusalem, bound in the Spirit, not knowing what shall befall me there; 23except that the Holy Spirit testifies to me in every city that imprisonment and afflictions await me. 24But I do not account my life of any value nor as precious to myself, if only I may accomplish my course and the ministry which I received from the Lord Jesus, to testify to the gospel of the grace of God. 25And now, behold, I know that all you among whom I have gone preaching the kingdom will see my face no more. 26Therefore I testify to you this day that I am innocent of the blood of all of you, 27for I did not shrink from declaring to you the whole counsel of God. 28Take heed to yourselves and to all the flock, in which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to care for the church of God which he obtained with the blood of his own Son. 29I know that after my departure fierce wolves will come in among you, not sparing the flock; 30and from among your own selves will arise men speaking perverse things, to draw away the disciples after them. 31Therefore be alert, remembering that for three years I did not cease night or day to admonish every one with tears. 32And now I commend you to God and to the word of his grace, which is able to build you up and to give you the inheritance among all those who are sanctified. 33I coveted no one's silver or gold or apparel. 34You yourselves know that these hands ministered to my necessities, and to those who were with me. 35In all things I have shown you that by so toiling one must help the weak, remembering the words of the Lord Jesus, how he said, 'It is more blessed to give than to receive.'" 36And when he had spoken thus, he knelt down and prayed with them all. 37And they all wept and embraced Paul and kissed him, 38sorrowing most of all because of the word he had spoken, that they should see his face no more. And they brought him to the ship.


Chapter 21

1And when we had parted from them and set sail, we came by a straight course to Cos, and the next day to Rhodes, and from there to Pat'ara. 2And having found a ship crossing to Phoeni'cia, we went aboard, and set sail. 3When we had come in sight of Cyprus, leaving it on the left we sailed to Syria, and landed at Tyre; for there the ship was to unload its cargo. 4And having sought out the disciples, we stayed there for seven days. Through the Spirit they told Paul not to go on to Jerusalem. 5And when our days there were ended, we departed and went on our journey; and they all, with wives and children, brought us on our way till we were outside the city; and kneeling down on the beach we prayed and bade one another farewell. 6Then we went on board the ship, and they returned home. 7When we had finished the voyage from Tyre, we arrived at Ptolema'is; and we greeted the brethren and stayed with them for one day. 8On the morrow we departed and came to Caesare'a; and we entered the house of Philip the evangelist, who was one of the seven, and stayed with him. 9And he had four unmarried daughters, who prophesied. 10While we were staying for some days, a prophet named Ag'abus came down from Judea. 11And coming to us he took Paul's girdle and bound his own feet and hands, and said, "Thus says the Holy Spirit, 'So shall the Jews at Jerusalem bind the man who owns this girdle and deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles.'" 12When we heard this, we and the people there begged him not to go up to Jerusalem. 13Then Paul answered, "What are you doing, weeping and breaking my heart? For I am ready not only to be imprisoned but even to die at Jerusalem for the name of the Lord Jesus." 14And when he would not be persuaded, we ceased and said, "The will of the Lord be done." 15After these days we made ready and went up to Jerusalem. 16And some of the disciples from Caesare'a went with us, bringing us to the house of Mnason of Cyprus, an early disciple, with whom we should lodge. 17When we had come to Jerusalem, the brethren received us gladly. 18On the following day Paul went in with us to James; and all the elders were present. 19After greeting them, he related one by one the things that God had done among the Gentiles through his ministry. 20And when they heard it, they glorified God. And they said to him, "You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed; they are all zealous for the law, 21and they have been told about you that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children or observe the customs. 22What then is to be done? They will certainly hear that you have come. 23Do therefore what we tell you. We have four men who are under a vow; 24take these men and purify yourself along with them and pay their expenses, so that they may shave their heads. Thus all will know that there is nothing in what they have been told about you but that you yourself live in observance of the law. 25But as for the Gentiles who have believed, we have sent a letter with our judgment that they should abstain from what has been sacrificed to idols and from blood and from what is strangled and from unchastity." 26Then Paul took the men, and the next day he purified himself with them and went into the temple, to give notice when the days of purification would be fulfilled and the offering presented for every one of them. 27When the seven days were almost completed, the Jews from Asia, who had seen him in the temple, stirred up all the crowd, and laid hands on him, 28crying out, "Men of Israel, help! This is the man who is teaching men everywhere against the people and the law and this place; moreover he also brought Greeks into the temple, and he has defiled this holy place." 29For they had previously seen Troph'imus the Ephesian with him in the city, and they supposed that Paul had brought him into the temple. 30Then all the city was aroused, and the people ran together; they seized Paul and dragged him out of the temple, and at once the gates were shut. 31And as they were trying to kill him, word came to the tribune of the cohort that all Jerusalem was in confusion. 32He at once took soldiers and centurions, and ran down to them; and when they saw the tribune and the soldiers, they stopped beating Paul. 33Then the tribune came up and arrested him, and ordered him to be bound with two chains. He inquired who he was and what he had done. 34Some in the crowd shouted one thing, some another; and as he could not learn the facts because of the uproar, he ordered him to be brought into the barracks. 35And when he came to the steps, he was actually carried by the soldiers because of the violence of the crowd; 36for the mob of the people followed, crying, "Away with him!" 37As Paul was about to be brought into the barracks, he said to the tribune, "May I say something to you?" And he said, "Do you know Greek? 38Are you not the Egyptian, then, who recently stirred up a revolt and led the four thousand men of the Assassins out into the wilderness?" 39Paul replied, "I am a Jew, from Tarsus in Cili'cia, a citizen of no mean city; I beg you, let me speak to the people." 40And when he had given him leave, Paul, standing on the steps, motioned with his hand to the people; and when there was a great hush, he spoke to them in the Hebrew language, saying:


Chapter 22

1"Brethren and fathers, hear the defense which I now make before you." 2And when they heard that he addressed them in the Hebrew language, they were the more quiet. And he said: 3"I am a Jew, born at Tarsus in Cili'cia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gama'li-el, educated according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God as you all are this day. 4I persecuted this Way to the death, binding and delivering to prison both men and women, 5as the high priest and the whole council of elders bear me witness. From them I received letters to the brethren, and I journeyed to Damascus to take those also who were there and bring them in bonds to Jerusalem to be punished. 6"As I made my journey and drew near to Damascus, about noon a great light from heaven suddenly shone about me. 7And I fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to me, 'Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?' 8And I answered, 'Who are you, Lord?' And he said to me, 'I am Jesus of Nazareth whom you are persecuting.' 9Now those who were with me saw the light but did not hear the voice of the one who was speaking to me. 10And I said, 'What shall I do, Lord?' And the Lord said to me, 'Rise, and go into Damascus, and there you will be told all that is appointed for you to do.' 11And when I could not see because of the brightness of that light, I was led by the hand by those who were with me, and came into Damascus. 12"And one Anani'as, a devout man according to the law, well spoken of by all the Jews who lived there, 13came to me, and standing by me said to me, 'Brother Saul, receive your sight.' And in that very hour I received my sight and saw him. 14And he said, 'The God of our fathers appointed you to know his will, to see the Just One and to hear a voice from his mouth; 15for you will be a witness for him to all men of what you have seen and heard. 16And now why do you wait? Rise and be baptized, and wash away your sins, calling on his name.' 17"When I had returned to Jerusalem and was praying in the temple, I fell into a trance 18and saw him saying to me, 'Make haste and get quickly out of Jerusalem, because they will not accept your testimony about me.' 19And I said, 'Lord, they themselves know that in every synagogue I imprisoned and beat those who believed in thee. 20And when the blood of Stephen thy witness was shed, I also was standing by and approving, and keeping the garments of those who killed him.' 21And he said to me, 'Depart; for I will send you far away to the Gentiles.'" 22Up to this word they listened to him; then they lifted up their voices and said, "Away with such a fellow from the earth! For he ought not to live." 23And as they cried out and waved their garments and threw dust into the air, 24the tribune commanded him to be brought into the barracks, and ordered him to be examined by scourging, to find out why they shouted thus against him. 25But when they had tied him up with the thongs, Paul said to the centurion who was standing by, "Is it lawful for you to scourge a man who is a Roman citizen, and uncondemned?" 26When the centurion heard that, he went to the tribune and said to him, "What are you about to do? For this man is a Roman citizen." 27So the tribune came and said to him, "Tell me, are you a Roman citizen?" And he said, "Yes." 28The tribune answered, "I bought this citizenship for a large sum." Paul said, "But I was born a citizen." 29So those who were about to examine him withdrew from him instantly; and the tribune also was afraid, for he realized that Paul was a Roman citizen and that he had bound him. 30But on the morrow, desiring to know the real reason why the Jews accused him, he unbound him, and commanded the chief priests and all the council to meet, and he brought Paul down and set him before them.


Chapter 23

1And Paul, looking intently at the council, said, "Brethren, I have lived before God in all good conscience up to this day." 2And the high priest Anani'as commanded those who stood by him to strike him on the mouth. 3Then Paul said to him, "God shall strike you, you whitewashed wall! Are you sitting to judge me according to the law, and yet contrary to the law you order me to be struck?" 4Those who stood by said, "Would you revile God's high priest? 5And Paul said, "I did not know, brethren, that he was the high priest; for it is written, 'You shall not speak evil of a ruler of your people.'" 6But when Paul perceived that one part were Sad'ducees and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, "Brethren, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees; with respect to the hope and the resurrection of the dead I am on trial." 7And when he had said this, a dissension arose between the Pharisees and the Sad'ducees; and the assembly was divided. 8For the Sad'ducees say that there is no resurrection, nor angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees acknowledge them all. 9Then a great clamor arose; and some of the scribes of the Pharisees' party stood up and contended, "We find nothing wrong in this man. What if a spirit or an angel spoke to him?" 10And when the dissension became violent, the tribune, afraid that Paul would be torn in pieces by them, commanded the soldiers to go down and take him by force from among them and bring him into the barracks. 11The following night the Lord stood by him and said, "Take courage, for as you have testified about me at Jerusalem, so you must bear witness also at Rome." 12When it was day, the Jews made a plot and bound themselves by an oath neither to eat nor drink till they had killed Paul. 13There were more than forty who made this conspiracy. 14And they went to the chief priests and elders, and said, "We have strictly bound ourselves by an oath to taste no food till we have killed Paul 15You therefore, along with the council, give notice now to the tribune to bring him down to you, as though you were going to determine his case more exactly. And we are ready to kill him before he comes near." 16Now the son of Paul's sister heard of their ambush; so he went and entered the barracks and told Paul. 17And Paul called one of the centurions and said, "Take this young man to the tribune; for he has something to tell him." 18So he took him and brought him to the tribune and said, "Paul the prisoner called me and asked me to bring this young man to you, as he has something to say to you." 19The tribune took him by the hand, and going aside asked him privately, "What is it that you have to tell me? 20And he said, "The Jews have agreed to ask you to bring Paul down to the council tomorrow, as though they were going to inquire somewhat more closely about him. 21But do not yield to them; for more than forty of their men lie in ambush for him, having bound themselves by an oath neither to eat nor drink till they have killed him; and now they are ready, waiting for the promise from you. 22So the tribune dismissed the young man, charging him, "Tell no one that you have informed me of this." 23Then he called two of the centurions and said, "At the third hour of the night get ready two hundred soldiers with seventy horsemen and two hundred spearmen to go as far as Caesare'a. 24Also provide mounts for Paul to ride, and bring him safely to Felix the governor." 25And he wrote a letter to this effect: 26"Claudius Lys'ias to his Excellency the governor Felix, greeting. 27This man was seized by the Jews, and was about to be killed by them, when I came upon them with the soldiers and rescued him, having learned that he was a Roman citizen. 28And desiring to know the charge on which they accused him, I brought him down to their council. 29I found that he was accused about questions of their law, but charged with nothing deserving death or imprisonment. 30And when it was disclosed to me that there would be a plot against the man, I sent him to you at once, ordering his accusers also to state before you what they have against him." 31So the soldiers, according to their instructions, took Paul and brought him by night to Antip'atris. 32And on the morrow they returned to the barracks, leaving the horsemen to go on with him. 33When they came to Caesare'a and delivered the letter to the governor, they presented Paul also before him. 34On reading the letter, he asked to what province he belonged. When he learned that he was from Cili'cia 35he said, "I will hear you when your accusers arrive." And he commanded him to be guarded in Herod's praetorium.


Bullinger’s Notes on Acts Chs. 19-23 (for KJV)


Chapter 19

Verse 1

while . . . was. Literally in (Greek. en) the being Apollos.

at = in. Greek. en. App-104.

Corinth. All the notices of Apollos are connected with Corinth, except Titus 3:13, when he was apparently in Crete, or expected to pass through it.

upper. Greek. anoterikos. Only here.

coasts = parts, i.e. the highland district, at the back of the Western Taurus range. Paul"s route was probably through Derbe, Lystra, Iconium, the Phrygian lake district, and the Lydian part of the Province of Asia. It was about August September, A.D. 54.

certain. Greek. tis. App-123.


Verse 2

Have ye received. Literally If (App-118. a) ye received.

the Holy Ghost. Greek. pneuma hagion. No art. App-101.

since ye believed = having believed. App-150. There is no note of time, or sequence, any more than in Ephesians 1:13"after. "See note there.

We have, &c. Literally But not even (Greek. oude) heard we if (App-118. a) holy spirit is (given). John taught the coming of the Holy Spirit (Matthew 3:11), and Paul that no one could believe without the enabling power of the Holy Spirit. Therefore the twelve men could not have questioned the existence of the Holy Spirit, and Paul would have rebuked them if they had. The reference must have been to the promised gifts.


Verse 3

unto them. The texts omit.

Unto. Greek. eis. App-104.

baptized. App-115.

baptism. App-115.


Verse 4

verily = indeed.

baptized. App-115.

repentance. Greek. metanoia. App-111.

unto = to.

people. Greek. laos. See note on Acts 2:47.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

believe. App-150.

after. Gr. meta. App-104.

Christ Jesus. App-98. The texts omit "Christ".


Verse 5

in = into. Greek. eis. App-104.

the name. See note on Acts 2:38. This verse continues Paul"s statement of John"s action. See the Structure.

Jesus. App-98.


Verse 6

the Holy Ghost. Both arts. App-101.

on. Greek. epi. App-104.

spake. Greek. laleo. App-121.

prophesied. See App-189.


Verse 7

men. Greek. aner. App-123.


Verse 8

into. Greek. eis. App-104.

synagogue. App-120.

spake boldly. Greek. parrhesiazomai. See note on Acts 9:27.

for the space of = for. Greek. epi. App-104.

three months. Sept. to Dec. A.D. 54.

disputing = reasoning. Greek. dialegomai. See Acts 17:2.

persuading. Greek. peitho. App-150.

concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.

kingdom of God. App-114.


Verse 9

divers = some. Greek. tines. App-124.

hardened. Greek. skleruno. Romans 9:18Hebrews 3:8Hebrews 3:13Hebrews 3:15Hebrews 4:7.

believed not = were unbelieving. Greek. apeitheo. Compare Acts 14:2Acts 17:5.

but spake evil = speaking evil. Greek. kakologeo. Here, Matthew 15:4Mark 7:10Mark 9:39.

that way = the way. See note on Acts 9:2.

multitude. Greek. plethos. See note on Acts 2:6.

departed = having withdrawn. Greek. aphistemi.

separated. Greek. aphorizo. Compare Acts 13:2.

school. Greek. schole. Literally leisure, then lecture or discussion, then place for such. Only here.

one. The texts omit.

Tyrannus. Evidently a -well-known teacher. He may have been a Rabbi, who had become a convert. "In towns where there were many Jews, both in Judea and elsewhere, they had a synagogue and a divinity school. "(Dr. John Lightfoot, Works, iii. 236.)


Verse 10

by the space of = for. Greek. epi. App-104.

they which dwelt = the dwellers. Greek. katoikeo. See note on Acts 2:5.

word. Greek. logos. App-121.

Jesus. The texts omit.

Greeks. Greek. Hellen. Contrast 2 Timothy 1:15 with this Acts 19:10.


Verse 11

God. App-98.

wrought = was doing.

special. Literally no (Greek. ou. App-105) chance, i.e. no ordinary. Greek. tunchano = to happen.

miracles. Greek. dunamis. See App-176.

by = through. Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 19:1. Paul was only the instrument, God the worker.


Verse 12

body = skin. Greek. chros. Only here. Medical writers used chros instead of soma for body.

brought. Greek. epiphero. Only here, Acts 25:18Romans 3:5Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:16Jude 1:9. The texts read apophero, carry.

unto = upon. Greek. epi. App-104.

sick. See John 11:3John 11:4.

handkerchiefs. Greek. soudarion. See note on John 11:44.

aprons. Greek. simikinthion. Only here. The Latin semicinctium means girding half-way round. These would be the linen aprons used in the craft of tent-making.

diseases. Greek. nosos. See note on Matthew 4:23Matthew 4:24.

departed. Greek. apallasso. Only here, Luke 12:58 (deliver). Hebrews 2:15 (deliver).

evil = wicked. Gr. poneros. App-128.

spirits. App-101.

of them. The texts omit.


Verse 13

vagabond = roving. Greek. perierchomai. Only here, Acts 28:131 Timothy 5:13Hebrews 11:37. Compare Genesis 4:14.

exorcists. Greek. exorkistes. Only here. The verb exorkizo, to adjure, only in Matthew 26:63.

took upon them = took in hand. Greek. epicheireo. See note on Acts 9:29.

call . . . the name = name.

over. Greek. epi. App-104. To get control over a demon, it was necessary to know its name (compare Mark 5:9) or to invoke the name of a superior power or spirit. Josephus (Antiquities VIII. ii. 5) relates how an exorcist, named Eleazar, when expelling a demon in the presence of Vespasian, invoked the name of Solomon. The great magical Papyrus of the third century, in the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris, gives spells in which the names of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and of Jesus, God of the Hebrews, are used.

We. The texts read "I".

adjure. Greek. orkizo. This is the formula for casting out a demon in the above-named Papyrus, where exorkizo also is found.

preacheth. Greek. kerusso. App-121.


Verse 14

sons. Greek. huios. App-108.

chief of the priests = a chief priest. Greek. archiereus. This word is only used in the Gospels, Acts, and Hebrews. It is used of the High Priest and priestly members of the Sanhedrin. Compare Matthew 26:3. Every town with a synagogue had a Sanhedrin of twenty-three members, if there were 120 Jews in the place; of three members, if there were fewer. Sceva was a member of the Sanhedrin at Ephesus.

which did so = doing this.


Verse 15

answered and said. App-122.

know. Greek. ginosko. App-132.

know. Greek. epistamai. App-132. In the English there is the Figure of speech Epistrophe., App-6, but not in the Greek


Verse 16

man. Greek. anthropos. App-123.

leaped. Greek. ephallomai. Only here.

overcame = having over powered. Greek. katakcurieuo. Here, Matthew 20:25Mark 10:421 Peter 5:3.

them. The texts read "them both". So it would seem only two of them were acting.

and prevailed. Literally were strong. Greek. ischuo. See note on Acts 15:10.

wounded. Greek. traumatizo. Only here and Luke 20:12.


Verse 17

was = became.

known. Greek. gnostoa. See note on Acts 1:19.

magnified. Greek. megaluno. See note on Acts 5:13.


Verse 18

confessed. Compare Matthew 3:6.

shewed = declared. See note on Acts 15:4.

deeds = practices. Greek. praxis. Elsewhere, Matthew 16:27 (works). Luke 23:51Romans 8:13Romans 12:4 (office). Colossians 3:9.


Verse 19

used = practised. Greek. prasso.

curious arts. Greek. periergos. Only here and 1 Timothy 5:13. The word means "going beyond that which is legitimate". The kindred verb only in 2 Thessalonians 3:11.

arts = things.

brought . . . together = having collected.

books. These were either books on magic, or strips of parchment or papyrus, with charms written on them. Many of these have been discovered. The great magical Papyrus referred to above (Acts 19:13) contains about 3,000 lines.

and burned them = burnt them up.

before = in the presence of.

counted. Greek. sumpsephizo. Only here.


Verse 20

mightily = according to strength (Greek. Kratos. App-172.)

grew. Greek. auxano. Compare Acts 6:7Acts 12:24.

God. The texts read "the Lord".

prevailed. Same word as in. Acts 19:16. This verse is an example of the Figure of speech Epicrisis. App-6.


Verse 21

After = As soon as.

ended = fulfilled or accomplished. Greek. pleroo. Frequently used of the O.T. prophecies. Also of any plan being carried out. Compare Matthew 3:15Mark 1:15Luke 7:1John 7:8. The reference is not to the affairs at Ephesus only, but to the things recorded in Acts 13:4 - Acts 19:20. Here ends Paul"s proclamation of the kingdom, and a further development of God"s purpose begins. See the Structure on p. 1575 and App-181.

purposed. Literally placed. Greek. tithemi. Occurs more than ninety times. Translated "lay", more than forty times. Compare Acts 5:2Luke 1:66Luke 9:44Luke 21:14.

the spirit = his spirit. App-101. The meaning is that he was firmly resolved. Figure of speech Idioma. App-6.

also see, &c. = see Rome also.

see. Greek. eidon. App-133.


Verse 22

sent. Greek. apostello. App-174. Compare 1 Corinthians 4:17.

ministered. Greek. diakoneo. App-190.

Erastus. Compare Romans 16:232 Timothy 4:20.

stayed. Literally held on. Greek. epecho. See note on Acts 3:5.

for a season = a time.


Verse 23

the same time = at (Greek. kata. App-104.) that season.

stir. See note on Acts 12:18.

about = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.


Verse 24

named = by name.

silversmith. Greek. argurokopos. Literally silver-beater. Only here.

shrines. Greek. naos. See note on Matthew 23:16. Here a shrine meant an image of the goddess and part of the famous temple. These might be large enough to make ornaments for rooms or small enough to be carried as charms. On the reverse of a coin of Ephesus in the British Museum is a facade of the temple with a figure of Artemis in the centre.

for = of.

Diana. Greek. Artemis. Not the chaste huntress of popular mythology, but an Oriental deity who personified the bountifulness of nature. An alabaster statue in the museum of Naples represents her with a castellated crown, and many breasts, with various emblematic figures indicating that she is the universal mother of all creation. Layard, in Nineveh and its Remains, gives reasons for identifying her with Semiramis, the Queen of Babylon, from whom all the licentiousness in ancient worship proceeded.

gain. Greek. ergasia. See note on Acts 16:16.

craftsmen. Greek. technites. Only here, Acts 19:38Hebrews 11:10Revelation 18:22. Compare Acts 18:3.


Verse 25

called together = gathered together. See note on Acts 12:12.

with = and.

workmen. Greek. ergates. A general term.

of like occupation. Literally concerning (Greek. peri. App-104.) such things. The shrines were made in terra-cotta, marble, &c, as well as silver. Demetrius was a guild-master of the silversmiths" guild, or trade union, and perhaps the other workmen had their own guilds.

Sirs. Greek. aner. App-123. See note on Acts 7:26.

by = out of. Greek. ek. App-104.

craft. Same as "gain"Acts 19:24.

wealth. Greek. euporia. Only here. Compare "ability"Acts 11:29.


Verse 26

Moreover = And.

see = behold. Greek. theoreo. App-133.

almost. See Acts 13:44.

turned away. Greek. methistemi. See note on Acts 13:22.

much people = a great crowd (Greek. ochlos).

gods. App-98.

with = by. Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 19:1.


Verse 27

this our craft. Literally this share for us, i.e. our line of trade.

is in danger. Greek. kinduneuo. Only here, Acts 19:40Luke 8:231 Corinthians 15:30.

to be set at nought. Literally to come into (Greek. eis) rejection (Greek. apelegmos). Only here.

also. Read after Diana.

temple. Greek. hieron. See Matthew 23:16. The ruins of this temple, one of the wonders of the ancient world, and of the amphitheatre (Acts 19:20), still remain.

goddess. Greek. thea, fem, of theos. Only here, verses: Acts 19:19Acts 19:35Acts 19:37.

despised = reckoned for (Greek. eis) nothing (Greek. ouden).

magnificence. Greek. megaleiotes. Only here, Luke 9:432 Peter 1:16.

destroyed. Greek. katliaireo; literally taken down. Compare Acts 13:19Acts 13:29Luke 1:522 Corinthians 10:5.

world. Greek. oikoumene. App-129.

worshippeth. Greek. sebomai. App-137.


Verse 28

And when, &c = Moreover having heard and become full of wrath, they.

cried out = were crying out.


Verse 29

whole. Omit.

confusion. Greek. sunchusis. Literally pouring together. Only here. Compare Acts 19:32.

caught = seized. Greek. sunarpazo. See note on Acts 6:12.

Gaius. If a Macedonian, not the same as in Acts 20:4, nor the one in Romans 16:231 Corinthians 1:14. He may have lived in Corinth.

Aristarchus. See Acts 20:4Acts 27:2Colossians 4:10Philemon 1:24.

men of Macedonia = Macedonians.

companions in travel = fellow travellers. Greek. sunekdemos. Only here and 2 Corinthians 8:19. Compare 2 Corinthians 5:6.

rushed. Greek. hormao. Only here, Acts 7:57, and of the swine in Matthew 8:32Mark 5:13Luke 8:33. In the Greek these two statements are transposed. See Revised Version.

with one accord. See note on Acts 1:14.

theatre. Greek. theatron. Only here, Acts 19:311 Corinthians 4:9. Compare App-133.


Verse 30

would = was wishing. Greek. boulomai. App-102.

people. Greek. demos. See Acts 12:22.


Verse 31

chief of Asia = Asiarchs. Greek. Asiarches. These were persons chosen for their wealth and position to preside over the public festivals and games, and defray the expenses. About this time a decree was passed that the month Artemisius, named after the goddess, should be wholly devoted to festivals in her honour. This decree is extant, and opens with words that sound like an echo of Acts 19:35.

sent. Greek. pempo. App-174.

desiring = exhorting. Greek. parakaleo. App-134.

adventure. Literally give. Figure of speech Idioma. App-6.


Verse 32

assembly. Greek. ekklesica App-186.

confused = confounded. Greek. sunchuno. See note on Acts 2:6.

knew. Greek. oida. App-132.

wherefore = on account of what.


Verse 33

drew = put forward. Greek. probibazo. Only here and Matthew 14:8, which see. The texts read sumbibazo. See Acts 9:22.

Alexander. Perhaps the same as in 1 Timothy 1:202 Timothy 4:14.

multitude. Same as "people" Acts 19:26.

putting . . . forward. Greek. proballo. Only here and Luke 21:30

beckoned. See note on Acts 12:17.

would have made = purposed (Greek. thelo. App-102.) to make his defence (Greek. apologeomai, to speak in defence. Occurs here, Acts 24:10Acts 25:8Acts 26:1Acts 26:2Acts 26:24Luke 12:11Luke 21:14Romans 2:152 Corinthians 12:19. Compare Acts 22:1).


Verse 34

knew. Greek. epiginosko. App-132.

all with one voice . . . out. Literally one voice came from (Greek. ek) all crying out.

about, &c. = as it were for (Greek. epi) two hours. Figure of speech Battologia. App-6.


Verse 35

townelerk = recorder. Greek. grammateus. In all its other sixty-six occurances translated scribe.

appeased = quieted. Greek. katastello. Only here and Acts 19:36.

Ye, &c. = Men, Ephesians. Compare Acts 1:11.

what man. The texts read, "who of men. "

knoweth. Greek. ginosko. App-132.

worshipper. Greek. neokoros. Literally temple-sweeper. Only here. This very word occurs on coins of Ephesus.

great goddess Diana. The texts read "great Diana".

the image, &c. Greek. Diopetes. Only here. Literally the fallen from Zeus. The lower part of the image in the shrine was a block of wood which was said to have fallen from the sky.


Verse 36

cannot be spoken against = are indisputable. Greek. anantirrhetos. Only here. The adverb in Acts 10:29.

ye ought to = it is needful that ye should.

be. Greek. huparcho. See note on Luke 9:48.

quiet = calmed or appeased, as in Acts 19:33.

nothing. Greek. medeis.

rashly = rash, or headstrong. Greek. propetes. Only here and 2 Timothy 3:4 (heady).


Verse 37

robbers of churches = plunderers of temples. Greek. hierosulos. Only here.

your goddess. The texts read "our god". App-98.


Verse 38

Wherefore if = If (App-118. a) indeed then.

matter = charge. Literally

word. Greek. logos. App-121. Figure of speech Idioma. App-6.

against. Greek. pros. App-104.

any man. Greek. tis. App-123.

law is open = courts (Greek. agoraios. See note on Acts 17:5) are being held.

deputies = proconsuls. Greek. anthupatos. See note on Acts 13:7. Asia was a proconsular province, but there was only one proconsul. The townclerk was probably speaking generally.

implead = charge, or accuse. Greek. enkaleo. Only here, Acts 19:40Acts 23:28Acts 23:29Acts 26:2Acts 26:7Romans 8:33.


Verse 39

enquire = seek diligently. Same word as in Acts 12:19Acts 13:7.

other. Greek. heteros. App-124.

determined = resolved. Greek. epiluo. Only here and Mark 4:34 (expounded).

lawful. Greek. ennomos, under laws. Only here and 1 Corinthians 9:21.


Verse 40

called in question. Same as "implead" (Acts 19:38).

for = concerning, as in Acts 19:8.

uproar. Greek. stasis, insurrection.

cause. Greek. aition. Only here and Luke 23:4Luke 23:14Luke 23:22.

whereby =. concerning (GR. peri, as in Acts 19:8) which.

account. Greek. logos. App-121.

concourse. Greek. sustrophe. Only here and Acts 23:12.


Verse 41

when, &c. = having said these things.

dismissed = dissolved. Greek. apoluo. App-174.


Chapter 20

Verse 1

And = Now.

uproar = din. Greek. thorubos. Here, Acts 21:34Acts 24:18Matthew 26:5Matthew 27:24Mark 5:38Mark 14:2. Compare Acts 17:5.

called unto. The texts and Syriac read comforted, or exhorted. App-134.

embraced. Greek. aspazomai. Generally translated "salute", or "greet". Compare 2 Corinthians 13:12.

for. Omit.

Macedonia. Compare verses: Acts 20:21Acts 20:22.


Verse 2

those parts. Doubtless including Philippi, Thessalonica, &c.

given them much exhortation. Literally exhorted (Greek. parakaleo. App-134.) them with many a word (Greek. logos. App-121.)


Verse 3

abode three months. Literally having done three months. Compare Acts 15:33Acts 18:23. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the species). App-6. The whole period covered by verses: Acts 20:1-3 is about nine months.

when, &c. Literally a plot (Greek. epiboule. See Acts 9:24) having been made against him by (Greek. hupo. App-104.) the Jews.

sail. Greek. anago. See note on Acts 13:13.

he purposed. Literally his purpose or judgment was. Greek. gnome. App-177.


Verse 4

accompanied = were accompanying. This was their purpose, but they went before and waited at Troas (Acts 20:5). Greek. sunepomai. Only here.

into = as far as.

Sopater. Shortened form of Sosipater, which is found in Romans 16:21, but there is no connexion between the two persons. The texts add "son of Pyrrhus".

Aristarehus. See Acts 19:29.

Secundus. Only here.

Gaius. Not the same as in Acts 19:29.

Tychicus. See Ephesians 6:21Colossians 4:72 Timothy 4:12Titus 3:12. He was with Paul in his first and second imprisonments at Rome, and was twice sent by him to Ephesus, which was no doubt his native place, as it was that of Trophimus.

Trophimus. See Acts 21:292 Timothy 4:20.


Verse 5

tarried = were waiting.

at = in. Greek. en. App-104.

Troas. Compare Acts 16:82 Corinthians 2:12.


Verse 6

sailed away. Greek. ekpleo. See note on Acts 15:39.

Philippi: i.e. from Neapolis, its port.

days, &c. This was Passover, A.D. 57.

to. Greek. eis, as in Acts 20:1.

five days. Compare Acts 16:11.

abode. Greek. diatribo. See note on Acts 12:19.


Verse 7

first, &c. = first day of the sabbaths, i.e. the first day for reckoning the seven sabbaths to Pentecost. It depended upon the harvest (Deuteronomy 16:9), and was always from the morrow after the weekly sabbath when the wave sheaf was presented (Leviticus 23:15). In John 20:1 this was the fourth day after the Crucifixion, "the Lord"s Passover. "Compare App-156. This was by Divine ordering. But in A.D. 57 it was twelve days after the week of unleavened bread, and therefore more than a fortnight later than in A.D. 29.

the disciples. The texts read "we".

came together = were gathered together, as in Acts 20:8.

break bread. See note on Acts 2:42.

preached. Greek. dialegomai. Often translated "reason". See note on Acts 17:2.

unto = to.

ready = being about. Same as in verses: Acts 20:20Acts 20:3Acts 20:13Acts 20:38,

depart. Greek. exeimi. See note on Acts 13:42.

continued = was extending. Greek. parateino. Only here.

his speech = the word. Greek. logos, as in Acts 20:2.


Verse 8

lights. Greek. lampas. App-130.

upper chamber. See note on Acts 1:13.

gathered together. See note on Acts 20:7.


Verse 9

sat = was sitting.

a = the.

window. Greek. thuris. Only here and 2 Corinthians 11:33. It was an opening with

young man. Greek. neanias. See note on Acts 7:58.

named = by name.

being fallen = being borne down. Greek. kataphero. Only in this verse and Acts 26:10"Sunk down" is the same word.

into = by (dat.)

long. Literally for (Greek. epi.) more (than usual).

third loft = third storey. Greek. tristegon. Only here.

dead = a corpse. App-139. Greek. nekros.


Verse 10

embracing. Greek. sumperilambano. Only here. Compare 1 Kings 17:212 Kings 4:34.

Trouble . . . yourselves. Greek. thorubeomai. See Acts 17:5.

not. Greek. me. App-105. It was midnight. Any loud outcry would have roused the neighbourhood and caused a scene.

life. Greek. psuche. App-110and App-170.


Verse 11

bread. The texts read "the bread", to support the idea that it was a Eucharistic service, but see note on Acts 20:7 and the references in Acts 2:42.

talked. Greek. homileo. Only here, Acts 24:26Luke 24:14Luke 24:15. Hence our word "homily", for a solemn discourse.

a long while = for (Greek. epi. App-104.) long (time).

break of day. Greek. auge. Only here.

so. Emph. to call attention to the circumstances attending his departure.


Verse 12

young man. Greek. pais. App-108. Not the same as Acts 20:9.

a little = moderately. Greek. metrios. Only here. Figure of speech Tapeinosis. App-6.

comforted. Greek. parakaleo. App-134. See Acts 20:2. They were cheered by the miracle and Paul"s words.

Verse 13

to ship = on board. Literally upon (Greek. epi. App-104.) the ship.

intending = being about. Same as in verses: Acts 20:3Acts 20:7Acts 20:38.

take in = receive on board.

had he appointed. Greek. diatasso. See note on Acts 7:44.

minding = being about, as above

go afoot. Greek. pezeuo. Only here. The distance was twenty miles.


Verse 14

met. Greek. sumballo. See note on Acts 4:15.


Verse 15

sailed thence, and = having sailed away. Greek. apopleo. See note on Acts 13:4.

came = arrived. Greek. katantao. See note on Acts 16:1.

next. Greek. epeimi. See note on Acts 7:26.

over against. Greek. antikru. Only here.

next. Greek. heteros. App-124.

arrived. Greek. paraballo. Only here and Mark 4:30 (compare, i.e. bring alongside).

next. Greek. echomai, to hold oneself near to. Note the three different words for "next" in this verse.


Verse 16

determined = decided. Greek. krino. App-122. It was a question of taking a ship stopping at Ephesus or Miletus.

sail by. Greek. parapleo. Only here.

because . . . would = in order that he might.

spend the time. Greek. chronotribeo, wear away the time. Only here.

hasted = was hurrying on.

Pentecost. Compare Acts 20:7.


Verse 17

Miletus. A city of great importance, as its remains show.

sent = having sent. Greek. pempo. App-174.

Ephesus. The time taken in summoning the elders was much less than he would have had to spend there, besides which there was the danger of a renewal of the rioting.

called. Greek. metakaleo. See note on Acts 7:14.

elders. Greek. presbuteros. See App-189.

church. See App-186.


Verse 18

unto = to.

know. Greek. epistamai. App-132.

that = from (Greek. apo) which.

came. Greek. epibaino. Only here, Acts 21:2Acts 21:6Acts 25:1Acts 27:2Matthew 21:5. Literally to go upon.

after what manner = how.

at all seasons = all the time.


Verse 19

Serving. Greek. douleuo. App-190.

humility of mind. Greek. tapeinophrosune. Only here, Ephesians 4:2Philippians 1:2Philippians 1:3Colossians 2:18Colossians 2:23Colossians 3:121 Peter 5:5.

many. Omit.

temptations. Greek. peirasmos. Always translated as here, save in 1 Peter 4:12. Here it means "trials", as in Luke 22:28. See 2 Corinthians 11:26.

by = in. Greek. en. App-104.

lying in wait = plots, as in Acts 20:3.


Verse 20

kept back. Greek. hupostello. Only here, Acts 20:27Galatians 1:2Galatians 1:12Hebrews 10:38. A medical word, used of withholding food from patients.

nothing. Greek. oudeis.

that was profitable = of the things profitable.

but have, &c. Literally so as not (Greek. me) to shew and teach.

publickly. Greek. demosia. See note on Acts 5:18.

from bouse to house = in your houses. Greek. kat" oikon, as in Acts 2:46.


Verse 21

Testifying = witnessing. Greek. diamarturomai. See note on Acts 2:40.

to the Jews, &c. = to. Jews and Greeks.

repentance. Greek. metanoia. App-111.

faith. Greek. pistis. App-150.

Jesus Cirist. App-98.


Verse 22

behold. Greek. idou. App-133. "And now, behold", repeated Acts 20:25. Figure of speech Epibole. App-6.

bound in the spirit = firmly resolved. Figure of speech Idioma. App-6.

spirit. App-101.

knowing. Greek. eidon. App-133.

befall = meet. Greek. sunantao. See note on Acts 10:25. Not the same word as in Acts 20:19.


Verse 23

Save = But only.

the Holy Ghost. App-101.

witnesseth. Same word as testify, Acts 20:21. The texts add "to me".

in every city. Greek. kata polin. Compare Acts 15:21.

afflictions Greek. thlipsis. See note on Acts 7:10.

abide = await or remain for. Greek. mino. See p. 1511.


Verse 24

none, &c. = I make of no (Greek. oudeis) account (Greek. logos).

neither. Greek. oude.

count = hold.

dear = precious. Greek. timios. See note on Acts 5:34.

finish. Greek. teleioo. App-125. Only here in Acts. Often translated "perfect".

course. See note on Acts 13:25. Ten years were yet to pass before this would be. See 2 Timothy 4:72 Timothy 4:8.

joy. All the texts omit "with joy".

ministry. Greek. diakonia. App-190.

of = from. Greek. para. App-104. Jesus. App-98.

the gospel, &c. App-140.

grace. App-184.


Verse 25

gone. Greek. dierchomai. See note on Acts 8:4.

preaching. Greek. kerusso. App-121.

the kingdom of God. App-114. The texts omit "of God".

shall see. Greek. opsomai. App-133.

no more = no longer. Greek. ouketi.


Verse 26

take you to record = am witnessed to by you. Greek. marturomai. Only here, Galatians 1:5Galatians 1:3Ephesians 4:17. The texts add Acts 26:221 Thessalonians 2:11 for martureomai. Figure of speech Deisis. App-6.

this day. Literally, in (Greek. en) the day of to-day.

pure, &c. Compare Acts 18:6.


Verse 27

have . . . shunned = shunned or shrunk. Greek. hupostello. Same as "kept back"Acts 20:20.

to. Literally not (Greek. me)

to. declare. Greek. anangello. See note on Acts 14:27. Same as "shew"Acts 20:20.

counsel. Greek. boule. App-102. All the revealed purpose of God up to that time. The Prison Epistles, containing the final revelation of God"s counsel, were not yet written.


Verse 28

Take heed. Greek. prosecho. The sixth occurs in Acts. See note on Acts 8:6Acts 8:10Acts 8:11.

flock. Greek. poimnion, little flock. Only here, Acts 20:29Luke 12:321 Peter 5:21 Peter 5:3. For poimne, see John 10:16.

over = in, or on. Greek. en. App-104. Out of 2,622 occurances of en, it is rendered "over" only here.

overseers. Greek. epiakopos. Elsewhere translated "bishop"Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:11 Timothy 3:2Titus 1:71 Peter 2:26. They are called "elders", in Acts 20:17, which makes it clear that "elders" (presbuteroi) and bishops (episkopoi) are the same. App-189.

feed = shepherd. Greek. poimaino. Occurs eleven times; translated "feed" seven times; "rule" in Matthew 2:6Revelation 2:27Revelation 12:5Revelation 19:15.

God. Some texts read "Lord", but Alford gives good reasons for rejecting the change, due to Arian and Socinian attempts against the Lord"s Deity.

purchased = gained possession of, or acquired. Greek. peripoieomai. Only here and 1 Timothy 3:13. Compare 1 Peter 2:9.

with = by means of. Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 20:1.


Verse 29

For. The texts omit.

this. Omit.

departing. Greek. aphixis. Only here.

grievous = oppressive. Greek. barus. Elsewhere Acts 25:7Matthew 23:4Matthew 23:232 Corinthians 10:101 John 5:3.

in among = unto. Greek. eis. App-104.

sparing. Greek. pheidomai. Always translated "spare" save 2 Corinthians 12:6. No other word for "spare" save Luke 15:17. This verse is an instance of the Figure of speech Hypocatastasis (App-6), to call attention to the true character of Apostolical succession.


Verse 30

Also, &c. = Of your own selves also.

of = out of. Greek. ek. App-104.

shall = will.

arise. Greek. anistemi. App-178.

speaking. Greek. laleo. App-121.

perverse. See note on Acts 13:8.

draw away. Greek. apospao. Only here, Acts 21:1Matthew 26:51Luke 22:41.

disciples = the disciples.

after, i.e. in their train. Greek. opiso.


Verse 31

watch. Compare 1 Peter 5:8.

and remember = remembering. Greek. mnemoneuo. Always translated "remember", save Hebrews 11:15Hebrews 11:22.

by the space of three years. Greek. trietia. Only here.

warn. Greek. noutheteo. Used only by Paul, here and seven times in his epistles.


Verse 32

now. See note on Acts 4:29.

brethren. The texts omit.

commend. Greek. paratithemi. See note on Acts 17:3.

word. Greek. logos. App-121.

build . . . up. Greek. epoikodomeo. Only used by Jude, (20), and Paul, here and six times in his epistles.

you. The texts omit.

inheritance. Greek. kleronomia. Only word translated inheritance, except Acts 26:18. Co Acts 1:1Acts 1:12.

them which are = the.

sanctified. Greek. hagiazso. See note on John 17:17John 17:19.


Verse 33

have coveted = desired.

no man"s. Greek. oudeis.

apparel. Greek. himatismos. The word expresses more stateliness than the common word himation. Here, Matthew 27:35Luke 7:25Luke 9:29John 19:24.


Verse 34

know. Greek. ginosko. App-132.

have ministered = ministered. Greek. hupereteo. App-190. See note on Acts 13:36.

necessities = needs. Compare Acts 2:45.


Verse 35

have shewed = shewed. Greek. hupodeiknumi. See note on Acts 9:16.

labouring = toiling. Greek. kopiao. Compare Matthew 6:28, first occurance.

support. Greek. antilambanomai. Only here, Luke 1:541 Timothy 6:2.

weak. Greek. astheneo. Often translated "sick".

It is, &c. This is one of the Paroemiae (App-6)of the Lord, not elsewhere recorded.


Verse 36

kneeled down. See note on Acts 7:60.

prayed. Greek. proseuchomai. App-134.


Verse 37

they all, &c. Literally there was a great weeping of all.

fell = having fallen.

and kissed. Greek. kataphileo. Only here, Matthew 26:49Mark 14:45 (Judas). Luke 7:38Luke 7:45 (the woman); Acts 15:20 (the father).


Verse 38

Sorrowing. Greek. odunomai. Only here, Luke 2:48Luke 16:24Luke 16:25.

for = upon. Greek. epi. App-104.

the words = the word. Greek. logos. App-121.

should = were about to.

see = behold. Greek. theoreo. App-133.

accompanied. Greek. propempo. See note on Acts 15:3. Compare App-174.

Acts 19


Chapter 21

Verse 1

gotten = withdrawn Same word as Acts 20:30.

launched. Greek anago. See note on Acts 13:13.

with a straight course. Greek. euthudromeo. See note on Acts 16:11.

unto. Greek. eis. App-104.

following. Greek. hexes. Only in Luke"s writings. Here, Acts 25:17Acts 27:18Luke 7:11Luke 9:37. Note the different expressions for next day used by Luke. Compare Acts 20:15.


Verse 2

went aboard = having embarked. Greek. epibaino. See note on Acts 20:18.

set forth. Same as launched, Acts 21:1.


Verse 3

discovered = sighted. Greek. anaphainomai. App-106. Only here and Luke 19:11.

Cyprus. The Kittim of the O.T. See Numbers 24:24Isaiah 23:1Isaiah 23:12Jeremiah 2:10Ezekiel 27:6Daniel 11:30. Compare Acts 4:36Acts 13:4-12.

sailed. Greek. pleo. Only here, Acts 27:2Acts 27:6Acts 27:24Luke 8:23.

into. Greek. eis. App-104.

landed. Greek. katago. Literally bring down. Occurs elsewhere Acts 9:30Acts 22:30Acts 23:15Acts 23:20Acts 23:28Acts 27:3Acts 28:12Luke 5:11Romans 10:6.

at = into. Greek. eis.

Tyre. See Matthew 11:21.

there. Greek. ekeise. Only here and Acts 22:5.

unlade = unload. Greek. apophorlizomai. Only here.

burden. Greek. gomos. Only here and Revelation 18:11Revelation 18:12.


Verse 4

flnding = having found. Greek. aneurisko, to find by searching. Only here and Luke 2:16.

disciples = the disciples. Probably few. He no longer seeks the synagogue.

tarried. Greek. epimeno. See note on Acts 10:48.

through. Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 21:1.

the Spirit = the Holy Spirit. App-101. Compare verses: Acts 21:11-14 and Acts 1:2.

go up. Greek. anabaino, but the texts read epibaino, as in Acts 21:2.


Verse 5

And = But it came to pass that.

accomplished = completed. App-125.

and they all, &c. = all with wives and children, bringing us on our way. Greek. propempo. See note on Acts 15:3.

children. Greek. teknon. App-108.

we kneeled down = having kneeled down. See note on Acts 7:60.

shore. Greek. aigialos. Only here, Acts 27:39Acts 27:40Matthew 13:2Matthew 13:48John 21:4.

and prayed = we prayed. Greek. proseuchomai. App-134.


Verse 6

taken our leave. Greek. aspazomai. See note on Acts 20:1.

took ship = embarked (Greek. epibaino, as in Acts 21:1) on (Greek. eis) the ship, i.e. the same ship as Acts 21:2.

home. Literally to (Greek. eis) their own (things).


Verse 7

finished. Greek. dianio. Only here.

our course = the voyage. Greek. ploos. Only here and Acts 27:9Acts 27:10.

came. Greek. katantao. See note on Acts 16:1.

saluted. Same as "take leave" in Acts 21:6.

abode. Greek. meno. See p. 1511.


Verse 8

next. Here the common word epaurion is used. Compare "following"Acts 21:1.

of Paul"s company. Literally about (Greek. peri. App-104,) Paul.

Caesarea. See note on Acts 8:40. About sixty miles from Tyre by the coast road.

the seven. See Acts 6:5.


Verse 9

the same man = this one.

which did prophesy. Greek. propheteuo. They were evangelists, like their father. This is in accord with Joel 2:28 as quoted in Acts 2:17. see App-49and App-189.


Verse 10

came down. Caesarea was 2,000 feet below the hill country of Judaea.

certain. Greek. tis. App-123.

prophet. See App-189.

named = by name.

Agabus. See Acts 11:28.


Verse 11

the Holy Ghost = the Holy Spirit. App-101. Both articles here.

shall = will.

at = in. Greek. en. App-104.

man. Greek. aner. App-123.

deliver. Greek. paradidomi. See note on John 19:30.

Gentiles. Greek. ethnos.


Verse 12

they of that place = the residents, i.e. the believers there. Greek. entopios. Only here.

besought = were beseeching. Greek. parakaleo. App-134.


Verse 13

What mean ye, &c. Literally What are ye doing, weeping, &c.

break = crush. Greek. sunthrupto. Only here.

am ready = hold myself in readiness. This expression Occurs also 2 Corinthians 12:141 Peter 4:5.

not. Greek. ou. App-105.

also to die = to die also.

for = in behalf of. Greek. huper. App-104.

the name. See note on Acts 2:38.

the Lord. App-98.

Jesus. App-98. Paul"s decision was approved (Acts 23:11).


Verse 14

persuaded. Greek. peitho. App-150.

ceased. See note on Acts 11:18.

will. Greek. thelema. App-102.


Verse 15

after. Greek. meta. App-104.

took up, &c = having prepared for moving, or packed up. "Carriage" is used in the old sense of that which is carried. Compare 1 Samuel 17:22. Greek. aposkeuazomai. Only here.


Verse 16

of = from. Greek. apo. App-104.

and brought = bringing.

with them. Omit.

one. Greek. tis App-123.

Mnason. Nothing more is known of him.

of Cyprus = a Cypriote, as in Acts 4:36Acts 11:20.

old. Greek. archaios. Not referring to his age but to his standing in the Christian assembly. An early disciple.

lodge. Greek. xenizo. See note on Acts 10:6.


Verse 17

gladly. Greek. asmenos. Only here and Acts 2:41.


Verse 18

following. Greek. epeimi. See note on Acts 7:26.

went in. Greek. eiseimi. Only here, Acts 21:26Acts 3:3Hebrews 9:6.

elders. See App-189.

were present = came. Greek. paraginomai. Occurs thirty-seven times. Elsewhere translated "come".


Verse 19

declared = related. See note on Acts 10:8.

particularly. Literally one by one, each one of the things which.

God. App-98. See note on 1 Corinthians 3:9.

had wrought = did.

among. Greek. en. App-104.

by = through. Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 21:1.

ministry. Greek. diakonia. App-190.

Verse 20


glorified = were glorifying. Not a single act, but a continual praising.

the Lord. The texts read "God".

unto = to.

seest. Greek. theoreo. App-133.

brother. Compare Acts 9:17 and 2 Peter 3:15.

thousands. Greek. murias = myriads. Fig. Hyperbole. App-6. Compare John 3:26John 12:19.

believe = have believed. App-150.

are. Emph. Greek. huparcho. See note on Luke 9:48.

zealous. Greek. zelotes. Properly a noun, meaning zealot, i.e. enthusiast. Occurs here, Acts 22:31 Corinthians 14:12Galatians 1:1Galatians 1:14Titus 2:14. Also as a title. See App-141.


Verse 21

are = were. informed = instructed. See note on Acts 18:26.

of = concerning. Gr. peri. App-104.

among. Greek. kata. App-104.

to forsake = apostasy (Greek. apostasia. Only here and 2 Thessalonians 2:3) from (Greek. apo).

Moses. See note on Acts 3:22Matthew 8:4. Here meaning the law, as in Acts 6:11Acts 15:21.

saying that they ought. i.e. telling or bidding them. Compare 2 John 1:10-11.

children. Greek. teknon. App-108.

neither. Greek. mede.

after = by.

customs. See note on Acts 6:14.


Verse 22

the multitude, &c. Some texts omit this, and read "they will certainly (Greek. pantos) hear".


Verse 23

vow. Greek. euche. See Acts 18:18. App-134.


Verse 24

purify. Greek. hagnizo. Compare John 11:55. This refers to the ceremonies connected with the Nazirite vow (Num 6). James, who was probably the speaker, would be glad to find Paul was already under the vow he had taken at Cenchreae (Acts 18:18), as facilitating the execution of his plan.

be at charges = pay the expenses of the sacrifices. Greek. dapanao. Here, Mark 5:26Luke 15:142 Corinthians 12:15James 4:3.

with = upon. Greek. epi. App-104.

shave. Greek. xurao. Only here and 1 Corinthians 11:51 Corinthians 11:6. See note on keiro, Acts 18:18.

may = shall.

know. Greek. ginosko. App-132.

concerning. Same as "of"Acts 21:21.

nothing. Greek. oudeis.

walkest orderly. Greek. stoicheo = to walk according to religious observances. Here, Romans 4:12Galatians 1:5Galatians 1:25Galatians 6:16Philippians 1:3Philippians 1:16.


Verse 25

touching. Greek. peri. App-104.

have written = wrote.

and concluded = having decided. Greek. krino. App-122.

that they . . . only. The texts omit.

things offered, &c. = that which is offered, &c. Greek. eidolothutos. See note on Acts 15:29.


Verse 26

next. Same as in Acts 20:15. Greek. echomai

entered. Greek. eiseimi, as in Acts 21:18.

temple. Greek. hieron. See note on Matthew 23:16.

to signify = declaring. Greek. diangello. Only here, Luke 9:60Romans 9:17.

accomplishment. Greek. ekplerosis. Only here. Compare Acts 13:33.

purification. Greek. hagnismos. Only here.

an offering = the offering. See Numbers 6:14-20. Greek. prosphora. Only here, Acts 24:17Romans 15:16Ephesians 5:2Hebrews 10:5Hebrews 10:8Hebrews 10:10Hebrews 10:14Hebrews 10:18.

offered. Greek. prosphero. First occurance. Matthew 2:11 (presented).

every = each.

ended. Greek. sunteleo. Elsewhere Matthew 7:28Mark 13:4Luke 4:2Luke 4:13Romans 9:28Hebrews 8:8.

when they saw = having seen. Greek. theaomai. App-133.

stirred up = excited. Greek. suncheo. This form Occurs only here. See note on Acts 2:6.

people = crowd. Greek. ochlos.

Verse 28

Men of Israel. See note on Acts 1:11Acts 2:22.

This = This one, this fellow.

man. Greek. anthropos. App-123.

against. Greek. kata. App-104.

people. Greek. laos. See Acts 2:47.

this place: i.e. the Temple.

further = moreover.

Greeks. Greek. Hellen.


Verse 29

seen before. Greek. proorao. Only here and Acts 2:25.

city. It was in the city Trophimus was seen in Paul"s company, and they came to the conclusion that when they saw Paul in the Temple, Trophimus must be there too.

an = the.

supposed = concluded. Greek. nomizo. See note on Acts 14:19. But the evidence was insufficient. Paul was too well informed not to be aware of the inscription which forbade the entry of any alien within the inner temple under penalty of death. It was on one of the pillars of the balustrade which separated the court of the women, where the Nazirite ceremonies were performed, from the inner sanctuary. The stone bearing this inscription was discovered by M. Clermont Ganneau in 1871. It is as follows: "No alien is to enter within the railing and enclosure round the temple. Whosoever is caught will be responsible to himself for his death which will ensue. "


Verse 30

all the city = the whole city.

the people ran, &c. = there was a running together (Greek. sundrome. Only here) of the people.

took. Greek. epilambanomai. See note on Acts 9:27.

drew = were dragging. Greek. helko. Only here and James 2:6. Compare Acts 16:19.

forthwith = immediately.

the doors, &c. These were the gates leading into the court of the women. Shut by the Levitical door-keepers to prevent profanation by murder.


Verse 31

went about = were seeking. Compare John 7:19John 7:20.

tidings = a report. Greek. phasis. Only here.

came. Literally went up, i.e. to the Castle of Antonia, which overlooked the Temple.

chief captain. Greek. chiliarchos. The commander of 1,000 men. See note on John 18:12.

band = cohort. Greek. speira. See John 18:3.

was in an uproar = was in commotion. Greek. sunchuno. See notes on Acts 21:27Acts 2:6Acts 19:29.


Verse 32

immediately. Greek. exautes. See note on Acts 10:33.

soldiers, &c. From the garrison in Antonia.

centurions. Greek. hekatontarchos. The form used in the Gospels, and in nine places in Acts. Here, Acts 22:25Acts 22:26Acts 23:17Acts 23:23Acts 27:6Acts 27:11Acts 27:43Acts 28:16.

ran down. Greek. katatrecho. Only here.

unto = upon. Greek. epi. App-104.

saw. Greek. eidon. App-133.

left beating of Paul = ceased beating Paul.


Verse 33

came near, and = having drawn near.

two chains: i.e. either hand chained to a soldier. See note on Acts 12:6.

demanded. Greek. punthanomai. See note on Acts 4:7Acts 10:18.


Verse 34

cried = were crying out. Greek. boao, as in Acts 17:6. The texts read epiphoneo, as in Acts 12:22 (gave a shout) and Acts 22:24.

multitude. Same as people, Acts 21:27.

the certainty = the sure thing. Greek. asphales. Adjective meaning "safe"or "sure". Occurs here, Acts 22:30Acts 25:26Philippians 1:3Philippians 1:1Hebrews 6:19.

for = on account of. Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 21:2.

tumult. Same as uproar, Acts 20:1.

castle. Greek. parembole. Occurs elsewhere, Acts 21:37Acts 22:24Acts 23:10Acts 23:16Acts 23:32Hebrews 11:34Hebrews 13:11Hebrews 13:13Revelation 20:9.


Verse 35

stairs. Greek. anabathmos. Only here and Acts 21:40.

so it was = it befell, as in Acts 20:19.

borne. Greek. bastazo, as in Acts 15:10.

of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104.


violence. Greek. bia. See note on Acts 5:26.

Verse 36

multitude. Greek. plethos. See note on Acts 2:6.

Away with him. Greek. airo. See note on John 19:15.


Verse 37

was = was about.

led = brought.

May I speak. Literally If (App-118. a) it is permitted me to say something.

Who = But he.

Canst thou speak = Dost thou know. Greek. ginosko. App-132.

Greek. Greek. Bellenisli. Only here and John 19:20.


Verse 38

Art not thou = Art thou not then.

that = the.

madest an uproar = stirred up to sedition. Greek. anastatoo. See note on Acts 17:6.

that were murderers = of the Sicarii, or assassins (Greek. sikarios. Only here). The Sicarii (a Latin word from sica, a curved dagger) were bandits who infested Judeea in the time of Felix, who sent troops against them, though Josephus says it was at the instigation of Felix that they murdered the high priest Jonathan. The Egyptian referred to was a false prophet who led a number of the Sicarii to Jerusalem, declaring that the walls would fall down before them.


Verse 39

of Tarsus = a Tarsean. Greek. Tarseus. See note on Acts 9:11.

in = of.

citizen. Greek. polites. Only here and Luke 15:15Luke 19:14.

mean = without mark. Greek. asemos. Only here. Used of disease without definite symptoms. In the medical writer, Hippocrates, the very expression "no mean city" occurs. Figure of speech Tapeinosis. App-6.

beseech. Greek. deomai. App-134.

speak. Greek. laleo. App-121.


Verse 40

given him licence. Same word as "suffer" in Acts 21:39.

stood . . . and = standing.

beckoned. See note on Acts 12:17.

spake unto them = addressed (them). Greek. prosphoneo. Only here, Acts 22:2Matthew 11:16Luke 6:13Luke 7:32Luke 13:12Luke 23:20.

Hebrew. Greek. Hebrais. Only here, Acts 22:2Acts 26:14.

tongue = dialect. Greek. dialektos. See note on Acts 1:19. There should be no break before Acts 22.


Chapter 22

Verse 1

Men, &c. See note on Acts 1:11 with Acts 7:2.

defence. Greek. apologia. Occurs eight times, here; Acts 25:161 Corinthians 9:32 Corinthians 7:11Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:7Philippians 1:172 Timothy 4:161 Peter 3:15. See the verb, Acts 19:33.


Verse 2

spake . . . to = addressed. Greek. prosphoneo, as in Acts 21:40.

Hebrew. Greek. Hebrais, as in Acts 21:40.

tongue. Greek. dialektos, as in Acts 1:19.

kept, &c. = shewed silence the more.


Verse 3

verily. Texts omit.

man. Greek. aner. App-123.

in Cilicia = of Cilicia.

brought up. Greek. anatrepho. Only here and Acts 7:20Acts 7:21.

Gamaliel. See note on Acts 5:34. Only mentioned in these two places.

taught. Greek. paideuo, to train a child (pais), instruct, chastise. See Acts 7:22Luke 23:16Luke 23:22.

according to. Greek. kata. App-104.

perfect manner. Literally accuracy. Greek. akribeia. Only here. Much used by medical writers.

of the fathers. Greek. patroos, pertaining to the fathers. Only here, Acts 24:14Acts 28:17.

and was = being. Gr huparcho. See note on Luke 9:48.

zealous. See note on Acts 21:20.

toward = of, i.e. a zealot in behalf of. Compare Philippians 1:3Philippians 1:5Philippians 1:6.

God. App-98.

as ye, &c. This was to conciliate them. Figure of speech Protherapeia. App-6.


Verse 4

this. Emph.

way. See Acts 9:2.

unto = as far as.

the. Omit.

binding. Greek. desmeuo. Only here and Matthew 23:4.

delivering. Same as "commit" in Acts 8:3.

women. Compare Acts 8:3Acts 9:2.


Verse 5

also, &c. = the high priest also.

bear . . . witness. Greek. martureo. See p. 1511. Same as Acts 15:8.

all the estate, &c. = the whole presbytery. Greek. presbuterion. Only here, Luke 22:661 Timothy 4:14.

brethren. This means the Jewish rulers in Damascus.

went = was going.

to = unto. Greek. eis. App-104.

there. Greek. ekeise. Only here and Acts 21:3. Add "also".

for to be punished = in order that (Greek. hina) they might be punished. Greek. timoreo. Only here and Acts 26:11.


Verse 6

was come nigh = drew near.

unto = to.

noon. Greek. mesembria. Only here and Acts 8:26 (south).

suddenly. Greek. exaiphnes. See note on Acts 9:3.

shone . . . round. Greek. periastrapto. See note on Acts 9:3.

from = out of. Greek. ek. App-104.

heaven = the heaven. See note on Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.

light. Greek. phos. App-130.


Verse 7

ground. Greek. edaphos. Only here.

heard. See note on Acts 9:4.

Saul, Saul. See note on Acts 9:4.


Verse 8

answered. Greek. apokrinomai. App-122.

Lord. App-98.

Jesus. App-98.

of Nazareth = the Nazarene. See Acts 2:22. The Lord Himself uses the despised name.


Verse 9

with. Greek. sun. App-104.

saw = beheld. Greek. theaomai. App-133. It was no mere lightning flash. Compare "glory"Acts 22:11.

and were afraid. Omit.

heard. See note on Acts 9:7.

spake. Greek. laleo. App-121.


Verse 10

What shall I do. This question is only in this account.

Arise. Greek. anistemi. App-178.

told. Greek. laleo, as in Acts 22:9.

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.

appointed. Greek. tasso. See note on Acts 13:48.


Verse 11

see. Greek. emblepo. App-133.:7.

for = from. Greek. apo. App-104.

glory. Greek. doxa. See note on John 1:14. Compare Acts 7:55.

that. Emph.

led by the hand. See note on Acts 9:8.

of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104.

were with. Greek. suneimi. Only here and Luke 9:18.


Verse 12

one = a certain. Greek. tis. App-123.

devout. Greek. eusebes. See note on Acts 10:2, but the texts read eulabes, as in Acts 2:5.

having a good report = borne witness to. Greek. matureo, as in Acts 22:5. Compare Hebrews 11:2Hebrews 11:4, &c, Revised Version.

dwelt. Greek. katoikeo. See note on Acts 2:5.


Verse 13

Saul. Greek. Saoul, as in Acts 22:7.

receive thy sight. Literally look up. Greek. anablepo. App-133.:6.

looked up. Same word. Greek. anablepo.


Verse 14

chosen = destined. Greek. procheirizomai. Only here and Acts 26:16. Not the same as in Acts 1:2, &c.

that thou shouldest know = to know. Greek. ginosko. App-132.

will. Greek. thelema. App-102.

see. Greek. eidon. App-133.

that Just One = the Righteous One. Greek. dikaios. App-191. Compare Acts 3:14Acts 7:521 John 2:1. Figure of speech Antonomasia. App-6. Paul was thus led to avoid using any term that would excite his hearers.

shouldest hear = to hear.

the voice of His mouth = His commands. Figure of speech Idioma. App-6. Paul thus received his commission direct from the Lord Himself. Compare Galatians 1:1Galatians 1:12.

of = out of. Gr ek. App-104.


Verse 15

His witness = a witness to Him.

witness. See Acts 1:8.

men. Greek. anthropos. App-123.

what = the things which.

seen. Greek. horao. App-133.


Verse 16

baptized. App-115. The verb is in Mid. Voice.

wash away. Greek. apolouo. App-136 and App-185.

sins. Greek. hamartia. App-128.

calling on. See note on Acts 2:21.

the name. See note on Acts 2:38.

the Lord. The texts read "of Him", i.e. His name, referring to the Righteous One.


Verse 17

was come again = returned. See Acts 9:26Galatians 1:18. App-180.

prayed = was praying. Greek. proseuchomai. App-134.

temple. Greek. hieron. See Matthew 23:16. A point to weigh with his hearers.

trance. Greek. ekstasis. See note on Acts 10:10.


Verse 18

saying. Before "saying" supply ellipsis, "and heard Him".

quickly = with (Greek. en. App-104.) speed.

out of. Greek. ek. App-104.

receive. Greek. paradechomai. See note on Acts 16:21. Figure of speech Tapeinosis. App-6.

testimony. Greek. marturia. See note on p. 1511 and Compare Acts 1:8.

concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.


Verse 19

they = they themselves,

know. Greek. epistamai. App-132.

imprisoned = was imprisoning. Greek. phulakizo. Only here.

beat = was beating. Greek. dero. See note on Acts 5:40.

in every synagogue. Greek. kata tas sunagogas, synagogue by synagogue. Showing Paul"s systematic action.

believed. Greek. pisteuo. App-150.


Verse 20

Thy martyr Stephen = Stephen Thy witness (Greek. martur. See Acts 1:8).

shed = being poured out. Greek. ekcheo as in Acts 2:17Acts 2:18Acts 2:33.

consenting. Greek. suneudokeo. See note on Acts 8:1.

unto his death. The texts omit.

kept = was guarding.

raiment = garments. As in Acts 14:14.

slew. Greek. anaireo. See note on Acts 2:23.


Verse 21

send. Greek. exapostello. App-174.

Gentiles = nations. Greek. ethnos.


Verse 22

gave him audience = were listening to him. As in Acts 22:7, the verb followed by the Genitive case shows that they followed what he was saying.

word. Greek. logos. App-121. The thought of Gentiles on an equality with Jews was intolerable.


lifted up, &c. Compare Acts 2:14Acts 14:11.

Away. See note on John 19:15.

earth. Greek. ge. App-129.

fit. Greek. katheko. Only here and Romans 1:28. To teach the Gentiles that the Messiah of the Jews was a crucified malefactor was an outrageous offence to the orthodox Jew (1 Corinthians 1:23).


Verse 23

cried out = were crying out. Greek. kraugazo. See John 18:40.

cast off. Greek. ripto.

clothes = outer garments. Greek. himation. Holding them in their hands and tossing them upward.

threw = were throwing. Greek. ballo. App-174.


Verse 24

chief captain. See note on Acts 21:31.

castle. See note on Acts 21:34.

examined. Greek. anetazo. Only here and Acts 22:29.

scourging. Greek. mastix. Here and Hebrews 11:36 translated "scourging"; in the Gospels (Mark 3:10Mark 5:29Mark 5:34Luke 7:21) Translated "plague". Compare John 19:1.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

know. Greek. epiginosko. App-132.

wherefore = on account of (Greek. dia). what cause.

cried = were shouting. Greek. epiphoneo. See note on Acts 12:22.

against. Literally "at". No preposition.


Verse 25

bound. Greek. proteino, to stretch out or tie up. Only here.

thongs. Greek. himas. Here, Mark 1:7Luke 3:16John 1:27.

centurion. See note on Acts 21:32.

Is it = If (Greek. ei. App-118. a) it is.

scourge. Greek. mastizo. Only here. The usual word is mastigoo.

uncondemned. Greek. akatakritos. See note on Acts 16:37.


Verse 26

went. The chiliarch having given his orders, had gone to his quarters.

told. Greek. apangello. See note on Acts 16:36.

Take heed. The texts omit.

what thou doest = what art thou about to do?


Verse 28

sum. Greek. kephalaion. Only here and Hebrews 8:1. In Septuagint Leviticus 6:4Numbers 4:2Numbers 5:7 (principal), &c.

obtained. Greek. ktaomai. See note on Acts 1:18.

freedom. Greek. politeia = citizenship. Here and Ephesians 2:12.

born = "even born so. "


Verse 29

straightway. Greek. eutheos, as in Acts 21:30 (forthwith).

departed. See note on Acts 19:9.

should have, &c. = were about to examine.


Verse 30

On the morrow = But on the morrow.

because, &c. = wishing (Greek. boulomai. App-102.) to know.

certainty. See note on Acts 21:34.

accused. Greek. katlgoreo. Occurs nine times in Acts.

of. Greek. para. App-104, but the texts read hupo, xviii. 1.

from his bands. The texts omit.

council = the Sanhedrin. See John 11:47.

appear. The texts read "come together".

brought . . . down. Greek. katago. See note on Acts 21:3.


Chapter 23

Verse 1

earnestly beholding. Greek. atenizo. App-133.

council. See note on Acts 22:30.

Men and brethren. See note on Acts 1:11.

lived. Greek. politeuomai, to live as a citizen. Only here and Philippians 1:1Philippians 1:27.

conscience. Greek. suneidesis. Compare Acts 24:16.

before = to.

God. App-98.


Verse 2

Ananias. Son of Nedebaeus. He was murdered by a band of the Sicarii some years after, being caught in an aqueduct where he had concealed himself (Josephus, Antiquities XX. v. 2 ; vi. 2 ; ix. 2 ; Wars, II. xvii. 9).

him on the = his.


Verse 3

shall = is about to.

whited = whitewashed. Greek. koniao. Only here and Matthew 23:27. See note there.

wall. Greek. toichos. The wall of a building, not the wall of a city (teichos). Only here.

to judge = judging. Greek. krino. App-122.

after = according to. Greek. kata. App-104.

contrary to the law = acting against law. Greek. paranomeo. Only here.


Verse 4

Revilest. Greek. loidoreo. See note on John 9:28.


Verse 5

wist = knew. Greek. oida. App-132.

the. Omit.

is written = has been written, or standeth written. See Exodus 22:28.

evil. Greek. kakos. Compare App-128. Compare John 18:23James 4:3 (amiss).

people. Greek. laos. See note on Acts 2:47.


Verse 6

But = Now.

perceived = got to know. Greek. ginosko. App-132. Some may have heard Paul"s address on the stairs (Acts 22:1-21), and were discussing his statement about the risen Lord, and might have put a question to him.

Sadducees . . . Pharisees. App-120.

other. Greek. heteros. App-124.

son. Greek. huios. App-108.

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.

the = a.

hope and resurrection = resurrection-hope. Figure of speech Hendiadys. App-6.

resurrection. Greek. anastasis. App-178.

of the dead. Greek. nekron. No art. App-139.

called in question = judged. Greek. krino, as in Acts 23:3.


Verse 7

so said = spoken (Greek. laleo. App-121.) this.

dissension. Greek. stasis. See note on Acts 15:2.

between = of.

multitude. Greek. plethos. See Acts 2:6.

divided. Greek. schizo. See note on Acts 14:4.


Verse 8

the. Omit.

neither . . . nor. Greek. mete . . . mete.

spirit. App-101.


Verse 9

cry. Greek. krauge. Here; Matthew 25:6Ephesians 4:31Hebrews 5:7Revelation 14:18Revelation 21:4.

arose. Greek. anistemi. App-178.

strove = were earnestly contending. Greek. diamachomai. Only here.

no = nothing. Greek. oudeis.

evil. Greek. kakos. App-128.

man. Greek. anthropos. App-123.

hath spoken = spoke. Greek. laleo, as in Acts 23:7.

let us not, &c. All the texts omit. They suddenly broke off. Perhaps the Pharisees were afraid to express their thoughts. It is the Figure of speech Aposiopesis. App-6. The words in the Authorized Version were probably added by some copyist from Acts 5:39. adapting Gamaliel"s language.


Verse 10

chief captain. See note on Acts 21:31.

fearing. Greek. eulabeomai. Only here and Hebrews 11:7. The texts read phobeomai (as Acts 22:29), a much more common word.

pulled in pieces = torn asunder. Greek. diaspao. Only here and Mark 5:4.

of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104.

soldiers. Literally an army or detachment. Greek. strateuma. Here, Acts 23:27Matthew 22:7Luke 23:11Revelation 9:16Revelation 19:14Revelation 19:19.

take . . . by force. Greek. harpazo. Compare Acts 8:39 (caught away).

from among = out of (Greek. ek) the midst of.

castle. See note on Acts 21:34.


Verse 11

following. Greek. epeimi. See note on Acts 7:26.

the Lord. App-98.

Be of good cheer = Take courage. Greek. tharseo. Here; Matthew 9:2Matthew 9:22Matthew 14:27Mark 6:50Mark 10:49Luke 8:48John 16:33.

Paul. The texts omit.

testified. Greek. diamarturomai. See note on Acts 2:40.

bear witness. Greek. martureo. See p. 1511 and note on John 1:7.

also at Rorne = at Rome also.


Verse 12

certain of. The texts omit.

banded together = having made a coalition, i.e. of the two sects. Greek. sustrophe. See note on Acts 19:40.

bound . . . curse. Greek. anathematizo. Only here, verses: Acts 14:21, and Mark 14:71, where see note.

saying, &c. Josephus records a vow taken by ten men to kill Herod the Great. In a papyrus from Oxyrhyiichus, in the Bodleian Library, there is a letter from an Egyptian boy, threatening that, if his father will not take him to Alexandria, he would neither eat nor drink.


Verse 13

conspiracy. Greek. sunomosia. Only here.


Verse 14

elders. App-189.

We have bound . . . curse. Literally we have anathematized ourselves (see Mark 14:71) with an anathema. A Hebraism. Figure of speech Polyptoton. App-6.

curse. Greek. anathema. Here; Romans 9:31 Corinthians 12:31 Corinthians 16:22Galatians 1:1Galatians 1:8Galatians 1:9.

that we will = to.

eat = taste. See note on Acts 10:10.


Verse 15

signify. Greek. emphanizo. App-106.

bring . . . down. Greek. katago. See note on Acts 21:3.

though ye would = being about to.

enquire. Greek. diaginosko. This is the medical word for making a careful examination. Only here and Acts 24:22. The noun diagnosis only in Acts 25:21.

something . . . him = the things concerning him more accurately (Greek. akribesteron, comparative of akribos, Acts 18:25Acts 18:26). Occurs Acts 18:26Acts 24:22.

concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.

or ever = before. Greek. pro. App-104.

kill. Greek. anaireo. See note on Acts 2:23. Not the same word as in verses: Acts 12:14.


Verse 16

lying in wait. Greek. enedra. Only here and Acts 25:3.

went, &c. This may be rendered "having come in upon (them) and entered", suggesting that he made the discovery accidentally. See Revised Version margin But it was of God. Paul was not to be "cut off" at the will of the enemy, any more than the "seed". See Exodus 2:6, and App-23.

told = reported (it to). Greek. apangello. See note on Acts 4:23.


Verse 17

centurions. See note on Acts 21:32.

young man. Greek. neanias, but the texts read neaniskos. App-108.

a certain thing. Greek. tis. App-123.


Verse 18

So, &c. = He therefore indeed having taken him, brought him.

Paul the prisoner. This was a title the apostle cherished as one of honour. See Ephesians 3:1Ephesians 4:12 Timothy 1:8Philemon 1:9.

prisoner. Greek. deamios.

prayed = asked. Greek. erotao. App-134.

something. Greek. tis. Same as "a certain thing"Acts 23:17.

say = speak. Greek. laleo App-121.

unto = to.


Verse 19

took. Greek. epilambanomai. See note on Acts 9:27.

went . . . aside = having withdrawn. Greek. anachoreo. Compare Matthew 12:15.

privately. Greek. kat" (App-104) idian. This expression occ many times in the first three Gospels, translated apart, aside, &c.

asked = enquired of. Greek. punthanomai. See note on Acts 21:33.


Verse 20

have agreed = agreed. Greek. suntithemi. Here, Acts 24:9Luke 22:5John 9:22.

desire. Same as "prayed"Acts 23:18.

enquire. Same as "asked"Acts 23:19.

somewhat = something, as in Acts 23:18.


Verse 21

yield unto = be persuaded by. Greek. peitho. App-150.

lie in wait. Greek. enedreuo. Only here and Luke 11:54. Compare Acts 23:16.

men. App-123.

looking for. Greek. prosdechomai. Compare Acts 24:15Mark 15:43 (waited for).

a = the. This shows that some promise of a further trial of Paul had been given.


Verse 22

So, &c. The chief captain indeed then.

let . . . depart = sent away. Greek. apoluo. App-174.

charged = commanded. Greek. parangello. See note on Acts 1:4.

See thou tell = to tell. Greek. eklaleo. Only here.

no man = no one. Greek. medeis.

shewed. Same as "signify"Acts 23:15.


Verse 23

he called = having called.

two = certain (Greek. tis. App-123.) two.

saying = he said.

to = as far as. Greek. heos. About seventy miles.

Caesarea. See note on Acts 8:40.

horsemen. Greek. hippeus. Only here and Acts 23:32.

spearmen. Greek. dexiolabos. Only here. Some light-armed troops are meant.

at = from. Greek. apo. App-104. The third hour of the night was 9pm, and no one could pursue till the gates were open at 6am.


Verse 24

beasts. Greek. ktenos. Here; Luke 10:341 Corinthians 15:39Revelation 18:13.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

set . . . on. Greek. epibibazo. Here, and Luke 10:34Luke 19:35.

bring . . . safe = keep him safe and bring him. Figure of speech Ellipsis. App-6. Greek. diasozo. See Matthew 14:36.

Felix. Claudius made him Procurator of Judsea in A.D. 52. Josephus gives many details of the stirring times of his rule, and of his cruelty and treachery (Ant. XX. vii. 1 ; viii, 5, 6, 7, &c).

governor. Greek. hegemon. The general term for a subordinate ruler, Felix being a lieutenant of the Propraetor of Syria.


Verse 25

And he wrote = Having written.

after this manner = having (Greek. periecho, but texts read echo) this form (Greek. tupos, Acts 7:43).


Verse 26

Claudius Lysias. As the Procurator"s legate, he was responsible for order in Jerusalem. He had shown promptness and vigour, and, moreover, kindly consideration for his prisoner (Acts 23:19), and in his letter puts Paul"s case in a favourable light. He certainly claims some credit for himself to which he was not entitled (Acts 23:27), and says nothing about his proposing to scourge a Roman citizen. But he stands far above Felix, or even Festus, and is entitled to rank with Julius (Acts 27:3Acts 27:43).

most excellent. Greek. kratistos. Only occurance here; Acts 24:3Acts 26:25, and Luke 1:3. It was an official title. Compare "Excellency".

greeting. See note on Acts 15:23.


Verse 27

was taken = having been seized. See note on Acts 1:16

should have been = being about to be, or on the point of being.

Then came I = having come.

an army = the detachment, as in Acts 23:10.

and rescued him = I delivered. Greek. exaireo. See note on Acts 7:10.

understood = learnt. He did not learn it till he was about to have him scourged. It has been called "a dexterous falsehood".


Verse 28

when I would have known = wishing (Greek. boulomai. App-102.) to know.

known. Greek. ginosko. App-132. but the texts read epiginosko.

wherefore = on account of (Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 23:2) which.

accused = were accusing. Greek. enkaleo. See note on Acts 19:38.


Verse 29

perceived = found.

questions. Greek. zetema. See note on Acts 15:2.

to have nothing, &c. = as having no accusation.

laid to his charge. Greek. enklema. Only here and Acts 25:16.


Verse 30

it was told me, &c. Literally a plot was revealed to me as about to be laid against the man.

told = revealed. Greek. menuo. See Luke 20:37 (shewed).

the Jews. The texts omit.

for = against. Greek. eis. App-104.

sent. Greek. pempo. App-174.

straightway. Greek. exautes. See note on Acts 10:33.

and gave commandment = having commanded, or charged. Greek. parangello. See Acts 23:22.

accusers. Greek. kategoros. Here; Acts 23:35Acts 24:8Acts 25:16Acts 25:18John 8:10Revelation 12:10.

what they had. Omit.

Farewell. Omit.


Verse 31

Then = So then.

as it was = according to (Greek. kata. App-104.) that which was.

commanded. Greek. diatasso. See note on Acts 7:44.

by = through. Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 23:1.

Antipatris. A small town in the plain of Sharon, about forty miles from Jerusalem. Built by Herod the Great, and called after his father, Antipater.


Verse 32

left. Greek. eao. Generally translated "suffer" in the sense of "permit".


Verse 33

when they came = having entered.

delivered = having delivered. Greek. anadidomi. Only here.

epistle. Same as letter, Acts 23:25.

before = to.


Verse 34

when, &c. The texts read "when he had read it".

asked = questioned. Greek. eperotao. See note on Acts 1:6.

province. Greek. eparchia. Only here and Acts 25:1.

Understood = learnt by enquiry. Greek. punthanomai. See verses: Acts 23:19Acts 23:20. of = from. Greek. apo. App-104.

Cilicia. Cilicia was included in the province of Syria, and therefore in the jurisdiction of Felix.


Verse 35

hear = hear fully. Greek. diakouo. Only here.

are also come = also shall have come.

kept = guarded.

judgment hall. Greek. praitorion. See note on Matthew 27:27John 18:28. It here means the guard-room attached to Herod"s palace.