Christian Churches of God
Commentary on Acts
(Edition 1.0 20220121-20220121)
Commentary on Chapters 24-28.
Commentary on Acts Part 6
Intent of the Chapters
Chapter 24 continues on with the invigilation of Paul after he had been sent to Governor Felix at Caesarea. Five days after Paul had been delivered to Felix and confined to Herod’s Praetorium the High Priest Ananius came down with some elders and a spokesman named Tertullus. They laid their case against Paul before Felix after praising his reforms (vv. 1-3). They then began to accuse Paul as a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes and one who tried to profane the Temple until they seized him (vv. 4-7). They then urged Felix to examine him himself to learn the truth of these accusations. The Jews joined in affirming that these accusations were so (vv. 8-9). Felix motioned for Paul to reply and Paul stated that it was only twelve days since he went up to Jerusalem and he did not dispute with anyone or stir up trouble either in the Temple or in the synagogues or in the city. Neither can they prove to Felix what they now bring against him (vv. 10-13), Paul then admitted to Felix that he was a member of the sect they called “The Way”. He stated they worshipped the God of our fathers and they believed everything written in the Law and the Prophets and having a hope in the Resurrection of both the just and the unjust (No. 143A and No. 143B); (cf. also Paul: Part I Paul and the Law (No. 271)). He then said he always took pains to have clear conscience towards God and men (vv. 14-16). Paul then explained that after some years he returned to bring to the nation some alms and offerings and was then found being purified in the Temple without causing any crowd or tumult. He then referred to the Jews from Asia who he said should be there before the Governor if they had any accusations to make against him. Or let these men before him themselves state what wrong doings he committed. He then stated that he had raised his voice while standing among them of his belief in the resurrection of the dead which is the reason he is on trial there before Felix (vv. 17-21).
Felix having a rather accurate knowledge of the Way put them off, saying that when Lysias, the tribune, comes down he would decide their case. He then gave orders to the centurion to hold him in custody but that he should be given some liberty and his friends should not be prevented from attending to his needs (vv. 22-23).
From verse 24 we see that Felix then came after some days with his wife Drusilla a Jewess.
Paul spoke on faith in Christ Jesus and Felix became alarmed as he spoke on justice and self control and future judgment (i.e. The Resurrections cf. 143A and 143B). Felix told him to go away for the present and he would later summon him (v. 25-27). Being familiar with Judaism he may have been placated by the position of the Sadducees and the denial of the Resurrection but having Paul confirm the Resurrection and judgment he saw he was unable to control the future.
Felix hoped to extract money from Paul and sent for him often over the two years until he was replaced by Porcius Festus. Felix is said to have left Paul in prison and it is not sure to what the two years refers, either from Felix’s appointment or from Paul’s arrest. The behaviour was also similar to Herod Antipas (cf. Mk. 6:20 cf. 18:14-17).
When Festus had taken office, after three days he went to Jerusalem from Caesarea. The Chief Priests and the principal men of the Jews informed him against Paul (vv. 1-2). They urged him to send Paul to Jerusalem and they had planned to ambush the party on the way and kill Paul in transit (v. 3). Festus replied that he was going to Caesarea shortly and they could accompany him and they could accuse him and he would hear the matter there (vv. 4-5).
After he had stayed there some eight or ten days he went down to Caesarea and the next day he brought forward Paul to the Tribunal. The Jews that had come with him then began to accuse Paul. They brought many serious charges against Paul that they could not prove (vv. 6-7).
He was asked if he wished to go to Jerusalem before the Tribunal there. He denied he had committed any offence against the Law of God or the Temple or the Jews. He would never have got fair trial before the Jews there. What then occurred was a jurisdictional dispute and Paul was forced to appeal to Caesar under his Roman Citizenship. Festus knew that and he then was forced to send him to Rome for trial according to Roman Law under the emperor himself. (vv. 8-12)
Some days had passed and Agrippa the king and Bernice his sister arrived in Caesarea to welcome Festus on taking up his appointment. They stayed there many days and Festus laid the case of Paul before the king. He explained Paul’s case and how he had inherited him from the time of Felix and that he brought him before the tribunal there but they brought no serious charge against him but rather they had disputes about their beliefs Festus called superstitions and about a Jesus who was dead but Paul asserted to be still alive. (vv. 13-19). Festus said he was at a loss to decide on the matters and then gave Paul the choice of going to Jerusalem and Paul opted for trial under Roman law under the emperor and so he was held until he could be sent to Caesar. Agrippa was intrigued and said he would like to hear the man himself. Festus then said: “tomorrow you shall hear him” (vv. 20-22).
On the morrow Agrippa and Bernice came with great pomp and entered the audience hall with the military tribunes and the prominent men of the city. Then Festus ordered that Paul be brought in (v. 23). Herod Agrippa II and Bernice were children of Herod Agrippa I (12.1-23). They ruled parts of Palestine.
Paul’s Defence Before Agrippa (25:24-26:22)
Festus admits he could find nothing worthy of death in Paul’s conduct. He said he had nothing definite to write to Caesar (lit. Augustus, an imperial title) about Paul. Festus stated that after they had examined him he might have something substantive to write concerning him, as it seemed unreasonable having nothing substantive to say about the charges against him (vv. 24-27).
From this chapter we see that Agrippa invited Paul to speak for himself and so Paul made his defence. This is considered a model defence of Christianity. Paul stated that he was fortunate to make his defence before Agrippa against all the accusations of the Jews. This was stated as being because he was familiar with all customs and controversies of the Jews, although he was not himself a practicing Jew (vv. 1-3).
Paul then explains his life from his youth both in Tarsus and at Jerusalem. He stated that the Jews knew he was a Pharisee of the strictest party. He held he was there on trial for his hope in the promise made by God to the fathers to which the twelve tribes hope to attain as they earnestly worship night and day. And for this hope the Jews accused him. He then asked why it is thought incredible by any that God raised the dead (vv. 4-8).
He stated that he was convinced to do many things in opposing the name of Jesus of Nazareth. And he did so in Jerusalem and shut up many of the saints in prison by order of the chief priests and when they were put to death he cast his vote against them. He punished them often in the synagogues trying to make them blaspheme and in raging fury persecuted them in foreign cities (vv. 9-11).
In this third account of his conversion (vv. 12-20; cf. 19:1-8; 22:4-16), he said he then journeyed to Damascus with the authority and commission of the chief priests. He then recounted his vision of the light from heaven at midday shining around him and those who journeyed with him (vv. 12-13). And when they had all fallen to the ground (added here), he heard a voice speaking in Hebrew: ‘Saul, Saul why do you persecute me? It hurts you to kick against the goads.’ Paul answered: “Who are you Lord?” And the Lord said: ‘I am Jesus whom you are persecuting. But rise and stand on your feet, for I have appeared unto you for this purpose, to appoint you to serve and bear witness to the things in which you have seen me and to those in which I appear to you delivering you from the people (i.e. of Judah) and from the Gentiles – to whom I send you to open their eyes that they may turn from darkness to light and from the power of Satan to God that they may receive forgiveness of sins and a place among those who are sanctified by faith in me’” (vv. 14-18).
From verses 19-20 Paul then stated that he was not disobedient to the heavenly vision but declared to those at Damascus and then at Jerusalem and all the country of Judea and to the Gentiles that they should repent and turn to God and perform deeds worthy of their repentance.
He then explains from verses 21ff that for that reason the Jews seized him in the Temple and tried to kill him. He says: that to that day, he had the help that comes from God and so he stood there before them saying nothing but what the prophets and Moses had said would come to pass; that the Christ must suffer (8:32-35; Lk. 24-26) and that being the first to rise from the dead, he would proclaim light both to the people and to the Gentiles.
It is here that Paul clearly outlines that salvation was also of the Gentiles and so we see that there was the cause of the real opposition to the message of the Messiah. This caused their failure to understand the reality and extent of the Gospel.
From verse 24 we see that Festus then interrupts the defence and says: “Paul you are mad; your great learning is turning you mad.” Paul replied: “I am not mad most excellent Festus but I am speaking the sober truth. For the king (Agrippa) knows about these things and to him I speak freely for I am persuaded that none of these things has escaped his notice for this was not done in a corner. King Agrippa, do you believe the prophets, I know that you believe.”
Agrippa said to Paul: “In a short time you think to make me a Christian?” (Christianon)
Paul replied: “Whether short or long, I would to God that not only you but all those who hear me this day might become such as I am - except for these chains.”
The king rose and the governor and Bernice and those sitting with them. When they had withdrawn they said “This man is doing nothing to deserve death or imprisonment.” And Agrippa said to Festus: “This man could have been set free if he had not appealed to Caesar.” As he had appealed to Caesar (25:11-12) Festus had decided that Caesar himself should hear the case.
Paul is then determined to be sent to Italy. 27:1-44 deals with the voyage to Malta which was a dangerous winter voyage ending in shipwreck. Paul and some other prisoners were handed to a centurion named Julius of the Augustan Cohort which was stationed in Syria in the First century CE. They embarked on a ship of Adramyttium which was about to sail to the ports along the coast of Asia and they put to sea. They were accompanied by Aristarchus a man from Thessalonica in Macedonia.
The next day they put in at Sidon and Julius treated Paul kindly and let him visit friends so they could care for him. They put to sea from there and sailed under the lee of Cyprus (i.e. to the east of the Island) because the winds were against them (v. 4). They sailed across the sea off Cilicia and Pamphylia and came to Myra in Lycia. There the centurion found a ship from Alexandria sailing for Italy and they embarked (vv. 5-6).
They made slow headway for a number of days and arrived with difficulty at Cnidus. As the wind did not allow them to go on they sailed under the lee of Crete (to its south) off Salmone (which is at its eastern end); coasting along it with difficulty and arriving at Fair Havens which was the city of Lasea.
Verse 9 explains that much time had been lost and the voyage was already dangerous because the Fast of Atonement had already gone by. Paul advised them that the voyage will be with injury and much loss, not only of the cargo and the ship but also their lives. However, the centurion paid more attention to the captain and the owner of the ship than to Paul. Because the harbour was not suitable in which to winter, the majority advised to put to sea from there on the chance they could reach Phoenix, a harbour of Crete which faced north-east and south-east, and they could winter there (vv. 9-12).
The south wind blew gently and they supposed that they achieved their purpose. They weighed anchor and sailed along Crete close inshore (v. 13). However, a tempestuous wind called the northeaster, blew down from the land and the ship could not make way before it; they were driven and running under the lee of a small island called Cauda, they managed with difficulty to secure the boat. After hoisting it up they took measures to undergird the ship. Fearing they should run on the Syrtis, (which was a dangerous shoal west of Cyrene), they lowered the gear and thus were driven (vv. 14-17). They were violently storm tossed and the next day they began to throw the cargo overboard and on the third day they cast out the ship’s tackle. Neither sun nor stars appeared for many days and they were under a significant tempest and at last they abandoned all hope of being saved (vv. 18-20).
Paul was then given a vision in order to encourage the men and crew. They had been a long time without food and Paul came forward and said: “Men you should have listened to me and should not have set sail from Crete and incurred this injury and loss. I now bid you to take heart for there will be no loss of life among you but only of the ship. For this very night there stood by me an angel of the God to whom I belong and whom I worship, and he said. ‘do not be afraid, Paul; you must stand before Caesar and God has granted you all those who sail with you’ so take heart men, for I have faith in God that it will be exactly as I have been told, but we shall have to run on some island” (vv. 21-26).
When the fourteenth night had come, as they were drifting across the sea of Adria (which included the area of sea as far as North Africa), about midnight, the sailors suspected they were nearing land. So they sounded and measured twenty fathoms. Further on they sounded again and found fifteen fathoms and fearing they might run on the rocks they let out four anchors from the stern and prayed for daylight (vv. 27-29). The sailors sought to escape from the ship and had lowered the boat under the pretence of laying out anchors from the bow. Paul warned the centurion that: “unless these men stay in the ship you cannot be saved.” Then the soldiers cut away the ropes of the boat and let it go (vv. 30-32).
As the day was about to dawn Paul urged them to take some food as it was the fourteenth day they had been in suspense or under duress and without food. Therefore he urged them to take some food to give them strength since not a hair is to perish from any of them (vv. 33-34).
When he had said that he took bread and gave thanks to God and broke it in the presence of all and began to eat. That encouraged them and they all had some food themselves. There were two hundred and seventy-six people in the ship. When they had eaten enough they began to lighten the ship throwing the cargo of wheat into the sea (vv. 35-38).
When it was day they did not recognise the land but they sighted a bay with a beach and planned if possible, to bring the ship ashore. So they cast off the anchors and left them in the sea and at the same time loosening the ropes that tied the rudders, then hoisting the foresail to the wind they made for the beach (vv. 39-40). The text says that they struck shoal. The Greek says a place of two seas and that was probably what is now the bay named after St Paul. The bow became stuck fast on the shoal and the stern was broken up by the surf (v. 41). The soldiers intended to kill the prisoners lest they swam away and escaped. However, the centurion, in order to save Paul, kept them from carrying out their purpose. He ordered those who could swim to throw themselves overboard and make for land and the others to make their way on planks or on pieces of the ship. And so it was that (as Paul had said the Angel told him) all escaped to land.
28:1-10 Paul in Malta.
After they had escaped the sea they learned that they had landed on Malta. The natives (non Greeks who spoke a Semitic language) there showed them unusual kindness. They kindled a fire and welcomed them as it had begun to rain and was cold. Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks and put them on the fire. A viper came out due to the heat and fastened on to his hand. The natives saw the snake hanging from his hand and they said to one another: “no doubt the man is a murderer. Though he escaped the sea justice has not allowed him to live.” (This served as a witness to them concerning Paul from the words of the gospel at Mk. 16:18.)
Paul shook off the viper into the fire and suffered no ill effects. They waited and expected him to swell up or fall dead. They waited for some time and then concluded he must have been a god (vv. 5-6).
Now in the neighbourhood of that place were lands belonging to the chief man of the island, named Publius. Chief man was the Greek term for high official in Malta. The father of Publius lay sick with fever and dysentery. Paul visited him and prayed and laid hands on him and healed him. When this had happened the rest of the people in the island who had diseases also came and were cured. They gave many gifts to Paul’s party and when they sailed they put on board whatever they needed (vv. 7-10).
After three months they set sail on a ship from Alexandria that had wintered on the island with the twin brothers (Castor and Pollux, deity of sailors) as a figurehead. They put in at Syracuse and stayed there for three days. From there they made a circuit and arrived at Rhegium (modern Reggio Calabria). After one day a south wind sprang up and on the second day they came to Puteoli (Pozzuoli on the north side of the bay of Naples) where they found brethren and were invited to stay with them for seven days. And so they came (by land) to Rome. The brethren there, when they heard of them, came as far as the Forum of Appius (43 miles from Rome) and Three Taverns (33 miles from Rome, both on the Via Appia) to meet them. On seeing them Paul thanked God and took courage (vv. 11-15). When they came into Rome Paul was allowed to stay by himself with the soldiers that guarded him (seemingly under house arrest) (v. 16).
After three days Paul called together the local leaders of the Jews, and when they had gathered he said to them: “Brethren, though I had done nothing against the people or the customs of our fathers, yet I was delivered prisoner from Jerusalem into the hands of the Romans. When they had examined me they wished to set me at liberty, because there was no reason for the death penalty in my case. But when the Jews objected I was compelled to appeal to Caesar –though I had no charge to bring against my nation. For this reason therefore I have asked to see you and speak with you, since it is because of the hope of Israel that I am bound with this chain” (vv. 17-21).
The Jews there said to Paul: “We have received no letters from Judea about you, and none of the brethren coming here has reported or spoken any evil about you. But we desire to hear from you what your views are; for with regard to this sect we know that everywhere it is spoken against.”
They appointed a day for him to speak; they came to him at his lodging in great numbers. He expounded the matter to them from morning to evening testifying to the kingdom of God, trying to convince them about Jesus from both the law of Moses and from the prophets. Some were convinced by what he said while others disbelieved. So as they disagreed among themselves, they departed after Paul had made this one statement: The Holy Spirit was right in saying to your fathers though Isaiah the prophet:
v. 26 Go to this people, and say,
You shall indeed hear but never understand,
And you shall indeed see but never perceive.
v. 27. For this peoples heart has grown dull,
and their ears are heavy of hearing,
and their eyes they have closed,
lest they should perceive with their eyes,
and hear with their ears,
and understand with their heart,
and turn for me to heal them.
v. 28. Let it be known to you then that this salvation of God has been sent to the Gentiles; they will listen.
(other ancient authorities add verse 29 And when he had said these words the Jews departed, holding much dispute among themselves. Christians often used Isaiah 6:9-10 to explain the Jews rejection of the gospel (see Mt. 13:14-15 and n. Jn 12:40).
The text then ends with verses 30-31: And he lived there two whole years at his own expense (or in his hired dwelling)
So Paul was able to spend two years in hired accommodation under house arrest to consolidate the church at Rome. The church at Rome was established by Linus ap Caradog, one of the 70 of Luke 10:1,17 ordained by Christ at Jerusalem. He was martyred in Rome after the poisoning of the emperor Claudius who had befriended his father, brothers, and uncle Arviragus and family. Meurig (St. Marius) grandson of Arviragus married his niece, Cyllin’s daughter and returned to Britain (cf. Establishment of the Church under the Seventy (No. 122D)).
Thus we see Acts covers the spread of the gospel from Jerusalem (1.8) to the centre of the Empire and on into Gaul and Britain with Aristobulus and the family of Linus, into Parthia, Scythia and Thrace with Peter and Andrew, and into Abyssinia, North Africa (Mark etc.), Ethiopia/Abyssinia (steward of Candace), and on into Asia from Arabia into India with Thomas and his group (cf. General Distribution of the Sabbath-keeping Churches (No. 122); Role of the Fourth Commandment in the Historical Sabbath-keeping Churches of God (No. 170); Origin of the Christian Church in Britain (No. 266)).
Acts Chapters 24-28 (RSV)
1And after five days the high priest Anani'as came down with some elders and a spokesman, one Tertul'lus. They laid before the governor their case against Paul; 2and when he was called, Tertul'lus began to accuse him, saying: "Since through you we enjoy much peace, and since by your provision, most excellent Felix, reforms are introduced on behalf of this nation, 3in every way and everywhere we accept this with all gratitude. 4But, to detain you no further, I beg you in your kindness to hear us briefly. 5For we have found this man a pestilent fellow, an agitator among all the Jews throughout the world, and a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes. 6He even tried to profane the temple, but we seized him. 7*[No text] 8By examining him yourself you will be able to learn from him about everything of which we accuse him." 9The Jews also joined in the charge, affirming that all this was so. 10And when the governor had motioned to him to speak, Paul replied: "Realizing that for many years you have been judge over this nation, I cheerfully make my defense. 11As you may ascertain, it is not more than twelve days since I went up to worship at Jerusalem; 12and they did not find me disputing with any one or stirring up a crowd, either in the temple or in the synagogues, or in the city. 13Neither can they prove to you what they now bring up against me. 14But this I admit to you, that according to the Way, which they call a sect, I worship the God of our fathers, believing everything laid down by the law or written in the prophets, 15having a hope in God which these themselves accept, that there will be a resurrection of both the just and the unjust. 16So I always take pains to have a clear conscience toward God and toward men. 17Now after some years I came to bring to my nation alms and offerings. 18As I was doing this, they found me purified in the temple, without any crowd or tumult. But some Jews from Asia-- 19they ought to be here before you and to make an accusation, if they have anything against me. 20Or else let these men themselves say what wrongdoing they found when I stood before the council, 21except this one thing which I cried out while standing among them, 'With respect to the resurrection of the dead I am on trial before you this day.'" 22But Felix, having a rather accurate knowledge of the Way, put them off, saying, "When Lys'ias the tribune comes down, I will decide your case." 23Then he gave orders to the centurion that he should be kept in custody but should have some liberty, and that none of his friends should be prevented from attending to his needs. 24After some days Felix came with his wife Drusil'la, who was a Jewess; and he sent for Paul and heard him speak upon faith in Christ Jesus. 25And as he argued about justice and self-control and future judgment, Felix was alarmed and said, "Go away for the present; when I have an opportunity I will summon you." 26At the same time he hoped that money would be given him by Paul. So he sent for him often and conversed with him. 27But when two years had elapsed, Felix was succeeded by Porcius Festus; and desiring to do the Jews a favor, Felix left Paul in prison.
1Now when Festus had come into his province, after three days he went up to Jerusalem from Caesare'a. 2And the chief priests and the principal men of the Jews informed him against Paul; and they urged him, 3asking as a favor to have the man sent to Jerusalem, planning an ambush to kill him on the way. 4Festus replied that Paul was being kept at Caesare'a, and that he himself intended to go there shortly. 5"So," said he, "let the men of authority among you go down with me, and if there is anything wrong about the man, let them accuse him." 6When he had stayed among them not more than eight or ten days, he went down to Caesare'a; and the next day he took his seat on the tribunal and ordered Paul to be brought. 7And when he had come, the Jews who had gone down from Jerusalem stood about him, bringing against him many serious charges which they could not prove. 8Paul said in his defense, "Neither against the law of the Jews, nor against the temple, nor against Caesar have I offended at all." 9But Festus, wishing to do the Jews a favor, said to Paul, "Do you wish to go up to Jerusalem, and there be tried on these charges before me?" 10But Paul said, "I am standing before Caesar's tribunal, where I ought to be tried; to the Jews I have done no wrong, as you know very well. 11If then I am a wrongdoer, and have committed anything for which I deserve to die, I do not seek to escape death; but if there is nothing in their charges against me, no one can give me up to them. I appeal to Caesar." 12Then Festus, when he had conferred with his council, answered, "You have appealed to Caesar; to Caesar you shall go." 13Now when some days had passed, Agrippa the king and Berni'ce arrived at Caesare'a to welcome Festus. 14And as they stayed there many days, Festus laid Paul's case before the king, saying, "There is a man left prisoner by Felix; 15and when I was at Jerusalem, the chief priests and the elders of the Jews gave information about him, asking for sentence against him. 16I answered them that it was not the custom of the Romans to give up any one before the accused met the accusers face to face, and had opportunity to make his defense concerning the charge laid against him. 17When therefore they came together here, I made no delay, but on the next day took my seat on the tribunal and ordered the man to be brought in. 18When the accusers stood up, they brought no charge in his case of such evils as I supposed; 19but they had certain points of dispute with him about their own superstition and about one Jesus, who was dead, but whom Paul asserted to be alive. 20Being at a loss how to investigate these questions, I asked whether he wished to go to Jerusalem and be tried there regarding them. 21But when Paul had appealed to be kept in custody for the decision of the emperor, I commanded him to be held until I could send him to Caesar." 22And Agrippa said to Festus, "I should like to hear the man myself." "Tomorrow," said he, "you shall hear him." 23So on the morrow Agrippa and Berni'ce came with great pomp, and they entered the audience hall with the military tribunes and the prominent men of the city. Then by command of Festus Paul was brought in. 24And Festus said, "King Agrippa and all who are present with us, you see this man about whom the whole Jewish people petitioned me, both at Jerusalem and here, shouting that he ought not to live any longer. 25But I found that he had done nothing deserving death; and as he himself appealed to the emperor, I decided to send him. 26But I have nothing definite to write to my lord about him. Therefore I have brought him before you, and, especially before you, King Agrippa, that, after we have examined him, I may have something to write. 27For it seems to me unreasonable, in sending a prisoner, not to indicate the charges against him."
1Agrippa said to Paul, "You have permission to speak for yourself." Then Paul stretched out his hand and made his defense: 2"I think myself fortunate that it is before you, King Agrippa, I am to make my defense today against all the accusations of the Jews, 3because you are especially familiar with all customs and controversies of the Jews; therefore I beg you to listen to me patiently. 4"My manner of life from my youth, spent from the beginning among my own nation and at Jerusalem, is known by all the Jews. 5They have known for a long time, if they are willing to testify, that according to the strictest party of our religion I have lived as a Pharisee. 6And now I stand here on trial for hope in the promise made by God to our fathers, 7to which our twelve tribes hope to attain, as they earnestly worship night and day. And for this hope I am accused by Jews, O king! 8Why is it thought incredible by any of you that God raises the dead? 9"I myself was convinced that I ought to do many things in opposing the name of Jesus of Nazareth. 10And I did so in Jerusalem; I not only shut up many of the saints in prison, by authority from the chief priests, but when they were put to death I cast my vote against them. 11And I punished them often in all the synagogues and tried to make them blaspheme; and in raging fury against them, I persecuted them even to foreign cities. 12"Thus I journeyed to Damascus with the authority and commission of the chief priests. 13At midday, O king, I saw on the way a light from heaven, brighter than the sun, shining round me and those who journeyed with me. 14And when we had all fallen to the ground, I heard a voice saying to me in the Hebrew language, 'Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? It hurts you to kick against the goads.' 15And I said, 'Who are you, Lord?' And the Lord said, 'I am Jesus whom you are persecuting. 16But rise and stand upon your feet; for I have appeared to you for this purpose, to appoint you to serve and bear witness to the things in which you have seen me and to those in which I will appear to you, 17delivering you from the people and from the Gentiles--to whom I send you 18to open their eyes, that they may turn from darkness to light and from the power of Satan to God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins and a place among those who are sanctified by faith in me.' 19"Wherefore, O King Agrippa, I was not disobedient to the heavenly vision, 20but declared first to those at Damascus, then at Jerusalem and throughout all the country of Judea, and also to the Gentiles, that they should repent and turn to God and perform deeds worthy of their repentance. 21For this reason the Jews seized me in the temple and tried to kill me. 22To this day I have had the help that comes from God, and so I stand here testifying both to small and great, saying nothing but what the prophets and Moses said would come to pass: 23that the Christ must suffer, and that, by being the first to rise from the dead, he would proclaim light both to the people and to the Gentiles." 24And as he thus made his defense, Festus said with a loud voice, "Paul, you are mad; your great learning is turning you mad." 25But Paul said, "I am not mad, most excellent Festus, but I am speaking the sober truth. 26For the king knows about these things, and to him I speak freely; for I am persuaded that none of these things has escaped his notice, for this was not done in a corner. 27King Agrippa, do you believe the prophets? I know that you believe." 28And Agrippa said to Paul, "In a short time you think to make me a Christian!" 29And Paul said, "Whether short or long, I would to God that not only you but also all who hear me this day might become such as I am--except for these chains." 30Then the king rose, and the governor and Berni'ce and those who were sitting with them; 31and when they had withdrawn, they said to one another, "This man is doing nothing to deserve death or imprisonment." 32And Agrippa said to Festus, "This man could have been set free if he had not appealed to Caesar."
1And when it was decided that we should sail for Italy, they delivered Paul and some other prisoners to a centurion of the Augustan Cohort, named Julius. 2And embarking in a ship of Adramyt'tium, which was about to sail to the ports along the coast of Asia, we put to sea, accompanied by Aristar'chus, a Macedo'nian from Thessaloni'ca. 3The next day we put in at Sidon; and Julius treated Paul kindly, and gave him leave to go to his friends and be cared for. 4And putting to sea from there we sailed under the lee of Cyprus, because the winds were against us. 5And when we had sailed across the sea which is off Cili'cia and Pamphyl'ia, we came to Myra in Ly'cia. 6Therethe centurion found a ship of Alexandria sailing for Italy, and put us on board. 7We sailed slowly for a number of days, and arrived with difficulty off Cni'dus, and as the wind did not allow us to go on, we sailed under the lee of Crete off Salmo'ne. 8Coasting along it with difficulty, we came to a place called Fair Havens, near which was the city of Lase'a. 9As much time had been lost, and the voyage was already dangerous because the fast had already gone by, Paul advised them, 10saying, "Sirs, I perceive that the voyage will be with injury and much loss, not only of the cargo and the ship, but also of our lives." 11But the centurion paid more attention to the captain and to the owner of the ship than to what Paul said. 12And because the harbor was not suitable to winter in, the majority advised to put to sea from there, on the chance that somehow they could reach Phoenix, a harbor of Crete, looking northeast and southeast, and winter there. 13And when the south wind blew gently, supposing that they had obtained their purpose, they weighed anchor and sailed along Crete, close inshore. 14But soon a tempestuous wind, called the northeaster, struck down from the land; 15and when the ship was caught and could not face the wind, we gave way to it and were driven. 16And running under the lee of a small island called Cauda, we managed with difficulty to secure the boat; 17after hoisting it up, they took measures to undergird the ship; then, fearing that they should run on the Syr'tis, they lowered the gear, and so were driven. 18As we were violently storm-tossed, they began next day to throw the cargo overboard; 19and the third day they cast out with their own hands the tackle of the ship. 20And when neither sun nor stars appeared for many a day, and no small tempest lay on us, all hope of our being saved was at last abandoned. 21As they had been long without food, Paul then came forward among them and said, "Men, you should have listened to me, and should not have set sail from Crete and incurred this injury and loss. 22I now bid you take heart; for there will be no loss of life among you, but only of the ship. 23For this very night there stood by me an angel of the God to whom I belong and whom I worship, 24and he said, 'Do not be afraid, Paul; you must stand before Caesar; and lo, God has granted you all those who sail with you.' 25So take heart, men, for I have faith in God that it will be exactly as I have been told. 26But we shall have to run on some island." 27When the fourteenth night had come, as we were drifting across the sea of A'dria, about midnight the sailors suspected that they were nearing land. 28So they sounded and found twenty fathoms; a little farther on they sounded again and found fifteen fathoms. 29And fearing that we might run on the rocks, they let out four anchors from the stern, and prayed for day to come. 30And as the sailors were seeking to escape from the ship, and had lowered the boat into the sea, under pretense of laying out anchors from the bow, 31Paul said to the centurion and the soldiers, "Unless these men stay in the ship, you cannot be saved." 32Then the soldiers cut away the ropes of the boat, and let it go. 33As day was about to dawn, Paul urged them all to take some food, saying, "Today is the fourteenth day that you have continued in suspense and without food, having taken nothing. 34Therefore I urge you to take some food; it will give you strength, since not a hair is to perish from the head of any of you." 35And when he had said this, he took bread, and giving thanks to God in the presence of all he broke it and began to eat. 36Then they all were encouraged and ate some food themselves. 37(We were in all two hundred and seventy-six persons in the ship.) 38And when they had eaten enough, they lightened the ship, throwing out the wheat into the sea. 39Now when it was day, they did not recognize the land, but they noticed a bay with a beach, on which they planned if possible to bring the ship ashore. 40So they cast off the anchors and left them in the sea, at the same time loosening the ropes that tied the rudders; then hoisting the foresail to the wind they made for the beach. 41But striking a shoal they ran the vessel aground; the bow stuck and remained immovable, and the stern was broken up by the surf. 42The soldiers' plan was to kill the prisoners, lest any should swim away and escape; 43but the centurion, wishing to save Paul, kept them from carrying out their purpose. He ordered those who could swim to throw themselves overboard first and make for the land, 44and the rest on planks or on pieces of the ship. And so it was that all escaped to land.
1After we had escaped, we then learned that the island was called Malta. 2And the natives showed us unusual kindness, for they kindled a fire and welcomed us all, because it had begun to rain and was cold. 3Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks and put them on the fire, when a viper came out because of the heat and fastened on his hand. 4When the natives saw the creature hanging from his hand, they said to one another, "No doubt this man is a murderer. Though he has escaped from the sea, justice has not allowed him to live." 5He, however, shook off the creature into the fire and suffered no harm. 6They waited, expecting him to swell up or suddenly fall down dead; but when they had waited a long time and saw no misfortune come to him, they changed their minds and said that he was a god. 7Now in the neighborhood of that place were lands belonging to the chief man of the island, named Publius, who received us and entertained us hospitably for three days. 8It happened that the father of Publius lay sick with fever and dysentery; and Paul visited him and prayed, and putting his hands on him healed him. 9And when this had taken place, the rest of the people on the island who had diseases also came and were cured. 10They presented many gifts to us; and when we sailed, they put on board whatever we needed. 11After three months we set sail in a ship which had wintered in the island, a ship of Alexandria, with the Twin Brothers as figurehead. 12Putting in at Syracuse, we stayed there for three days. 13And from there we made a circuit and arrived at Rhe'gium; and after one day a south wind sprang up, and on the second day we came to Pute'oli. 14There we found brethren, and were invited to stay with them for seven days. And so we came to Rome. 15And the brethren there, when they heard of us, came as far as the Forum of Ap'pius and Three Taverns to meet us. On seeing them Paul thanked God and took courage. 16And when we came into Rome, Paul was allowed to stay by himself, with the soldier that guarded him. 17After three days he called together the local leaders of the Jews; and when they had gathered, he said to them, "Brethren, though I had done nothing against the people or the customs of our fathers, yet I was delivered prisoner from Jerusalem into the hands of the Romans. 18When they had examined me, they wished to set me at liberty, because there was no reason for the death penalty in my case. 19But when the Jews objected, I was compelled to appeal to Caesar--though I had no charge to bring against my nation. 20For this reason therefore I have asked to see you and speak with you, since it is because of the hope of Israel that I am bound with this chain." 21And they said to him, "We have received no letters from Judea about you, and none of the brethren coming here has reported or spoken any evil about you. 22But we desire to hear from you what your views are; for with regard to this sect we know that everywhere it is spoken against." 23When they had appointed a day for him, they came to him at his lodging in great numbers. And he expounded the matter to them from morning till evening, testifying to the kingdom of God and trying to convince them about Jesus both from the law of Moses and from the prophets. 24And some were convinced by what he said, while others disbelieved. 25So, as they disagreed among themselves, they departed, after Paul had made one statement: "The Holy Spirit was right in saying to your fathers through Isaiah the prophet: 26'Go to this people, and say, You shall indeed hear but never understand, and you shall indeed see but never perceive. 27For this people's heart has grown dull, and their ears are heavy of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest they should perceive with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and turn for me to heal them.' 28Let it be known to you then that this salvation of God has been sent to the Gentiles; they will listen." 29*[No text] 30And he lived there two whole years at his own expense, and welcomed all who came to him, 31preaching the kingdom of God and teaching about the Lord Jesus Christ quite openly and unhindered.
Bullinger’s Notes on Acts Chs. 24-28 (for KJV)
Ananias. See note on Acts 23:2.
descended = came down.
the = certain. Greek. tis. App-123.
elders. See App-189.
certain. Greek. tis, as above.
orator = advocate. Greek. rhetor. Only here. The adverb, in 1 Timothy 4:1 (expressly).
who. Plural, referring to the Jews (Acts 24:9) as well as their spokesman.
informed. Greek. emphanizo. App-106.
governor. See note on Acts 23:24.
accuse. Greek. kategoreo. See note on Acts 22:30.
Seeing . . . enjoy = Obtaining (as we do). Greek. tunchano, to obtain, (intr.) to happen. See note on Acts 19:11.
by = through. Greek. dia App-104. Acts 24:1.
great quietness. Literally much peace (Greek. eirene).
very worthy deeds. Greek. katorthoma, but the texts read diorthoma. Only here. The words are from orthos (See Acts 14:10), and the former means "a right action", the latter, "an amelioration" or "reform".
unto = to.
nation. Greek. ethnos.
providence = provident care, or foresight. Greek. pronoia. Only here and Romans 13:14.
accept = receive. Greek. apodechomai. See note on Acts 2:41.
always = in every case. Greek. pante. Only here.
in all places = everywhere. Greek. pantachou.
most noble. Same as "most excellent", in Acts 23:26.
thankfulness. Greek. eucharistia. In the other fourteen occurances rendered "thanksgiving", "thanks", or "giving of thanks".
Notwithstanding = But.
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
further. Literally for (Greek. epi. App-104) more (time).
pray. Greek. parakaleo. App-134.
that thou wouldest = to.
of = in. Dative case.
clemency. Greek. epieikia. Only here and 2 Corinthians 10:1.
a few words = concisely. Greek. suntomos. Only here. A medical word.
a mover of = stirring up.
sedition. Greek. stasis. See note on Acts 15:2. The texts read "seditions".
among. Dative case.
throughout. Greek. kata. App-104.
world. Greek. oikoumene. App-129.
ringleader. Greek. Greek. protostates. Only here.
sect. Greek. hairesis. See note on Acts 5:17.
Nazarenes. Compare Acts 6:14. Only here is the term applied to believers. The Jews would not call them Christians (Acts 11:26), as that was derived from the word for Messiah; so Tertullus was instructed to call them Nazarenes. Compare Acts 22:8.
also. This should follow "temple".
hath gone about = attempted. Same as "assayed" (Acts 16:7).
profane = pollute. Greek. bebeloo. See note on Matthew 12:5, the only other occurances.
temple. Greek. hieron. See note on Matthew 23:16.
took = seized also.
and would have, &c. These words and Acts 24:7 and Acts 24:8, as far as "unto thee", are omitted by the texts, but not by the Syriac. Dean Alford puts the words in brackets and declares himself at a loss to decide respecting them, it being inexplicable that Tertullus should have ended so abruptly.
would have judged = purposed (Greek. ethelo. App-102.) to judge.
judged. Greek. krino. App-122.
chief captain. See note on Acts 21:31.
violence. Greek. bia. See note on Acts 5:26.
out of. Greek. ek. App-104.
Commanding = Having commanded. Lysias had done this after he had sent Paul to Caesarea to escape the plot. Hence the bitterness of the Jews against him. It is one of the strongest grounds for the retention of these verses.
accusers. Greek. kategoros. See note on Acts 23:30.
examimng = having examined. Greek. anakrino. App-122.
mayest = wilt be able to.
take knowledge = know fully. Greek. epiginosko. App-132.
of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.
assented = agreed. Greek. suntithemi. See note on Acts 23:20.
Then = And.
after that, &c. Literally the governor having nodded. See note on John 13:24.
answered. Greek. apokrinomai. App-122.
Forasmuch as, &c. = Knowing (as I do).
know. Greek. epistamai. App-132.
many years. About seven; i.e. since A.D. 52.
judge. See note on Acts 18:15.
answer. Greek. apologeomai. See note on Acts 19:33.
for, &c. = in regard to the things concerning (Greek. peri. App-104.) myself.
mayest = canst.
understand. Greek. ginosko. App-132, but the texts read epiginosko.
yet but = not (Greek. ou. App-105.) more than.
twelve days: i.e. since Acts 21:17.
since = from (Greek. apo. App-104.) which.
to. Greek. en, but the texts read eis, unto.
worship. Greek. proskuneo. App-137.
neither. Greek. oute.
in, in. Greek. en. App-104.
disputing. Greek. dialegomai. See note o Acts 17:2.
any man = any one. Greek. tis. App-123.
neither = or.
raising up the people = making up a seditious gathering (Greek. episustasis. Only here and 2 Corinthians 11:28) of the multitude (Greek. ochlos).
neither . . . nor. Greek. oute . . . oute.
in = throughout. Greek. kata. App-104.
prove. Same as "shew" (Acts 1:3). Here = demon-strate.
whereof = concerning (Greek. peri. App-104.) which.
after = according to. Greek. kata. App-104. the way. See note on Acts 9:2.
heresy. Same word as "sect", Acts 24:5.
worship. Greek. latreuo. App-137.
of my fathers. Greek. patroos. See note on Acts 22:6.
believing. Greek. pisteuo. App-150.
are = have been.
in = according to. Greek. kata, as above.
And have = Having.
toward. Greek. eis. App-104.
allow = look for. Greek. prosdechomai. See note on Acts 23:21.
resurrection. Greek. anastasis. App-178.
of the dead. App-139., but the texts omit, not the Syriac.
the just = righteous. Greek. dikaios. App-191.
unjust = unrighteous. Greek. adikos. Four times translated "unrighteous"; eight times "unjust". Compare App-128.
herein = in (Greek. en. App-104.) this.
exercise. Greek. eskeo, to practise as an art, used of the healing art in medical writings. Only here.
conscience. Compare Acts 23:1.
void of offence. Greek. aproskopos. The verb proskopto means to stumble, and this adjective here means "without stumbling", while in the other two ooc, 1 Corinthians 10:32. Philippians 1:1, Philippians 1:10, it means "not causing to stumble".
toward. Greek. pros. App-104.
men. Greek. anthropos. App-123.
many. Literally more. It was about five years since his previous visit. See App-180.
alms. See note on Acts 3:2.
offerings. Greek. prosphora. See note on Acts 21:26.
Whereupon = In (Greek. en) which, i.e. while engaged in the offerings.
neither = not. Greek. ou. App-105.
multitude = crowd. Greek. ochlos, as in Acts 24:12.
nor. Greek. oude.
tumult. Same as "uproar", Acts 20:1. A Latin MS. of the thirteenth century adds "And they laid hands on me, crying, Away with our enemy".
before. Greek. epi. App-104.
object = accuse, as in Acts 24:2.
if. The texts omit.
any = what.
evil doing. Greek. adikema. App-128.
voice = utterance. Greek. phone.
among. Greek. en. App-104.
Touching = Concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.
called in question = judged. Greek. krino. App-122.
And = Now.
when, &c. = Felix, having heard.
deferred. Greek. anaballo. Only here. Compare Acts 25:17. Much used in medical works.
comedown. Same as "descended", Acts 24:1.
know the uttermost, &c. Literally investigate thoroughly (Greek. diaginosko, as in Acts 23:15) the things referring to (Greek. kata. App-104.) you.
commanded. Greek. diatasso. See Acts 7:44.
a = the. Probably the one who had come with him.
centurion. Greek. hekatontarches. See Acts 10:1.
Paul. The texts read "him".
none = no one. Greek. medeis.
his acquaintance = his own (people).
minister. App-190. See Acts 13:36.
Drusilla. App-109. She was the daughter of Herod Agrippa I, and had left her first husband, Azizus, king of Emesa, and married Felix. It was no doubt through her that Felix had his knowledge of "the Way" (Acts 24:22).
sent for. Greek. metapempo. App-174. See note on Acts 10:5.
concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.
faith. Greek. pistis. App-150.
in = towards, or with regard to. Greek. eis. App-104.
Christ. The texts add "Jesus". App-98.
reasoned. Greek. dialegomai. See Acts 17:2.
righteousness. Greek. dikaiosune. See App-191.
temperance = self-control. Greek. enkrateia. Only here; Galatians 1:5, Galatians 1:23. 2 Peter 1:6. The adjective enkrates only in Titus 1:8 and the kindred verb only in 1 Corinthians 7:9; 1 Corinthians 9:25.
judgment. Greek. krima. App-177.
trembled and = having become terrified. Greek. emphobos. See Acts 10:4.
for this time = for the present.
call for. Greek. metakaleo. See Acts 7:14. The season never came for hearing what Paul had to teach, though he found opportunity to see if he could get a bribe.
should = would.
of = by. Greek. hupo, as in Acts 24:21. t
hat . . . him. The texts omit.
wherefore. Add "also".
the oftener. Greek. puknoteron. Comp of puknos, the neut. being used adverbially. See Luke 5:33. Add "also".
communed = was communing, or used to talk. Greek. homileo. See Acts 20:11.
after two years. Literally a space of two years (Greek. dietia, only here and Acts 28:30) having been fulfilled (Greek. pleroo. App-125.)
Porcius, &c. Literally Felix received Porcius Festus as successor (Greek. diadochos. Only here. Compare the verb in Acts 7:45).
willing = wishing. Greek. thelo. App-102.
pleasure. Greek. charis. App-184.
Festus. He was procurator only about two years (A.D. 60-62) when he died. Knowing the turbulence of the Jews, he wished to have the support of the priestly party. Hence his favour to them, in seeking to induce Paul to go to Jerusalem for trial, though Festus may not have known the reason of the request. Josephus commends him as a rooter-out of robbers and the Sicarii (Acts 21:38). See Wars, 11. xiv. 1.
was come. Greek. epibaino. See Acts 20:18.
into = to.
to = unto. Greek. eis. App-104.
high priest. Greek. archiereus. The texts read "chief priests".
chief = first.
informed. Gr emphanizo. See Acts 23:15 and App-106.
against. Greek. kata. App-104.
besought = were beseeching. Greek. parakaleo. App-134.
And desired = Asking. Greek. aiteo. App-134.
favour. Greek. charis. App-184.
send for. Greek. metapempo. See Acts 10:5 and App-174.
laying wait. Literally making a plot (Greek. enedra, as in Acts 23:16).
in = along. Greek. kata.
kill. Greek. anaireo. See Acts 2:23.
kept. Greek. tereo.
at = in. Greek. eis. App-104.
shortly. Literally in (Greek. en) speed.
among. Greek. en. App-104.
go down with. Greek. sunkatabaino. Only here.
accuse. Greek. kategoreo. See note on Acts 22:30.
man. Greek. aner. App-123. The texts read, "if there be anything in the man amiss, accuse him. "if. Greek. ei. App-118.
any. Greek. tis. App-123.
in. Greek. en. App-104.
tarried. Greek. diatribo. See Acts 12:19.
more, &c. The texts read, "not (Greek. ou) more than eight or ten".
the next day = on the morrow.
on = upon. Greek. epi. App-104.
judgment seat. Greek. bema. See John 19:13.
brought = brought forth, as in w. 17, 23.
came = had come.
and laid, &c. The texts read, "bringing against him".
complaints = charges. Greek. aitiama. Only here.
could = were . . . able to. See Acts 15:10.
prove. Greek. apodeiknumi. See Acts 2:22.
While, &c. Literally Paul making his defence. Greek. apologeomai. See Acts 19:33.
he. The texts read "Paul".
Neither. Greek. oute.
against. Greek. eis. App-104.
temple. Greek. hieron. See Matthew 23:16.
nor yet = neither. Greek. oute, as above.
have I offended = did I transgress. Greek. hamartano. App-128.
any thing at all = any thing. Greek. tis. App-123.
willing = purposing. Greek. thelo. App-102.
to do the Jews a pleasure = to gain favour with the Jews, as in Acts 24:27.
Wilt thou = Art thou willing to. Greek. thelo, as above.
judged. Greek. krino. App-122.
of = concerning. Greek. peri.
stand = am standing.
at = before. Greek. epi, as above.
to, &c. = the Jews I wronged (Greek. adikeo. See Acts 7:24) in nothing (Greek. oudeis).
very well. Literally better (i.e. than others).
knowest = knowest thoroughly. Greek. epiginosko. App-132.
For if = If then indeed.
be an offender = am doing wrong. Greek. adikeo, as in Acts 25:10.
refuse. Literally beg off. Greek. paraiteomai. See Luke 14:18.
none = nothing. Greek. oudeis. no man = no one. Greek. oudeis.
may = can. See Acts 25:7.
deliver. Literally grant. Greek. charizomai. App-184. See Acts 3:14.
unto = to.
appeal unto = call upon, invoke. Greek. epikaleomai. See Acts 2:21.
Caesar: i.e. the Emperor before whose tribunal every Roman citizen was entitled to appear. Paul, seeing the desire of Festus to hand him over to the Jews, was constrained to exercise this right. Compare Acts 16:37; Acts 22:25.
council. See Matthew 12:14. Greek. sumboulion. Not the same word used for "council" elsewhere in Acts, which is sunedrion. See Acts 4:15, &c. It means the assessors of the court, or chief officers of the government.
unto = before. Greek. epi. App-104. One can detect atone of resentment, since Paul"s appeal had baffled the desire of Festus to gain favour with the Jews.
And = Now.
king Agrippa. Agrippa the Second, son of the Herod of Acts 12, and Cypros, grand-niece of Herod the Great. At the death of his father, he was too young to be appointed his successor; but in A.D. 50 Claudius gave him the kingdom of Chalcis, his uncle the husband of Bernice, who occupied that throne, having died two years before. This was shortly afterwards exchanged for the tetrarchies of Abilene and Trachonitis, with the title of king. His relations with his sister Bernice were the occasion of much suspicion. He was of the Jews" religion, though of Idumaean descent, and well versed in Jewish laws and customs (Acts 26:3). Josephus (Wars, II. xvi. 4) records a speech he made to dissuade the Jews from engaging in war with the Romans. He sided with the Romans in the war, and after A.D. 70 retired with Bernice to Rome, where he died about A.D. 100.
came. Greek. katantao. See Acts 16:1.
salute. As vassal of Rome, to pay his respects to the procurator, Rome"s representative.
had been = had tarried, as in Acts 25:6.
Paul"s cause. Literally the things about (Greek. kata. App-104.) Paul.
certain. Greek. tis. App-123.
in bonds = a prisoner. Greek. desmios, always rendered "prisoner" except here and Hebrews 13:3.
About = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.
was = was come.
at = to. Greek. eis. App-104.
desiring to have = asking for. Greek. aiteo. App-134.
judgment. Greek. dike. App-177. The texts read katadike (condemnation), a word found nowhere else in NT.
To. Greek. pros. App-104.
the manner = a custom.
to die = unto (Greek. eis) destruction (Greek. apoleia). Compare Acts 8:20. But the texts omit.
accusers. See note on Acts 23:30.
face to face. Greek. kata (App-104.) prosopon.
have licence = should receive opportunity (literally place).
to answer, &c. = of defence. Greek. apologia, as in Acts 22:1.
concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.
crime laid against him = charge. Greek. enklema, aa in Acts 23:29.
without any delay = having made no (Greek. medeis) delay (Greek. anabole. Only here. Compare Acts 24:22).
on the morrow = the next (day). Greek. hexes. See Acts 21:1.
none. Greek. oudeis.
accusation = charge. Greek. aitia, the common word for cause, or charge.
supposed. See Acts 13:25.
questions. Greek. zetema. See Acts 15:2.
against. Greek. pros. App-104.
superstition = religion. Greek. deisidaimonia. Compare Acts 17:22. Festus would not say "superstition" in speaking to Agrippa, who was himself of the Jews" religion.
one = a certain, as above, Acts 25:14.
Jesus. App-98. affirmed = was affirming. Greek. phasko. See Acts 24:9.
concerning (Greek. peri) these things.
asked = said.
whether = if. App-118.
would = would be willing (Greek. boulomai. App-102.) to.
reserved = kept. Greek. tereo.
hearing = examination. Greek. diagnosis. Only here. See note on Acts 23:15.
Augustus. Greek. Sebastos. The Greek word means "venerable", the same as the Latin augustus, a title first used by Octavianus, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, and his successor, and by the Emperors succeeding. Compare the title "Ahasuerus". App-57.
kept. Same as "reserved".
send. Greek. pempo. App-174., but the texts read anapempo. App-174.
would also = I also was wishing to (App-102.)
And = Therefore.
pomp. Greek. phantasia. Only here. Compare the verb in Hebrews 12:21.
place of hearing. Greek. akroaterion. Only here. Compare akroates, hearer, Romans 2:13, &c.
with. Greek. sun. App-104.
chief captains. Greek. chiliarchos. See Acts 21:31.
principal men = men who were of eminence (Greek. kat" (App-104.) exochen. Exoche Occurs only here).
which are here present with. Greek. sumpareimi. Only here.
see = behold. Greek. theoreo. App-133.
this man = this (one).
multitude. Greek. plethos. See Acts 2:6.
crying = crying out. Greek. epiboao. Only here. The texts read boao, not so strong a word.
not . . . any longer. Greek. me (App-105) miketi. A double negative.
found = perceived. Greek. katalambano. See Acts 4:13.
committed = done.
nothing. Greek. medeis.
have determined = decided. Greek. krino. App-122.
no = not (Greek. ou) any (Gr tis). App-123.
certain = sure. See note on Acts 21:34.
lord. Greek. kurios. Compare App-98. This title was refused by the Emperors, Augustus and Tiberius, but accepted by Caligula and his successors.
after, &c Literally examination having taken place.
examination. Greek. anakrisis. Only here. Compare Acts 24:8.
somewhat. Greek. tis.
withal, &c. = to signify the charges also.
crimes = charges. Greek. aitia as in Acts 25:18.
unto. Greek. pros. App-104.
for = in behalf of. Greek. huper. App-104.
answered, &c. = was making his defence. Greek. apologeomai. See Acts 19:33.
think. Greek. hegeomai. This word has two meanings, "to lead" (Acts 15:22) and "hold, or reckon", as here and in nineteen subsequent passages.
shall = am about to.
before. Greek. epi App-104.
touching = concerning. Greek. peri App-104.
accused. Greek. enkaleo. See Acts 19:38.
of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104.
because, &c. Literal. thou being an expert. Greek. gnostes. Only here. Compare gnostos (Acts 1:19).
customs. Greek. ethos. See Acts 6:14.
questions. Greek. zetema. See Acts 15:2.
among = according to. Greek. kata. App-104.
beseech. Greek. deomai. App-134.
patiently. Greek. makrothumos. Only here. Figure of speech Protherapeia, App-6.
manner of life. Greek. biosis. Only here. Compare App-170.
at the first = frorn (Greek. apo. App-104.) the beginning (Greek. arche). Compare note on John 8:44.
among. Greek. en. App-104.
at = in. Greek. en. App-104.
know. Greek. oida. App-132.
Which knew me = Knowing me before. Greek. proginosko. App-132.
from the beginning. Greek. anothen. See note on Luke 1:3.
would = be willing to. Greek. thelo. App-102.
testify. Greek. martureo. See p. 1511, and note on John 1:7.
after = according to. Greek. kata. App-104.
sect. Greek. hairesis. See Acts 5:17.
Pharisee. See App-120.
judged. Greek. krino. App-122.
for = upon (the ground of). Greek. epi. App-104.
unto. The texts read eis. App-104.
twelve tribes. Greek. dodekaphulon. Only here. This single word to denote the whole twelve tribes shows that Paul regarded them as one. To him there were no "lost" tribes as fondly imagined to-day.
instantly = in (Greek. en) intensity. Greek. ekteneia. Only here. Compare the adjective ektenes (Acts 12:5).
serving. Greek. latreuo. App-137and App-190.
come = arrive. Greek. katantao. See Acts 16:1. For which hope"s sake = On account of (Greek. peri. App-104.) which hope.
king Agrippa. The texts omit.
Jews. The texts add, "O king".
should it be thought = is it judged. Greek. krino, as in Acts 26:6.
incredible. Greek. apistos. Only occurs in Acts. Elsewhere translated "faithless", "unbelieving", &c.
that = if. App-118.
should raise = raises. Greek. egeiro. App-178.
the dead = dead persons. Greek. nekros. App-139. Compare Acts 26:23.
verily = therefore indeed.
to = unto. Greek. pros. App-104.
the name. See Acts 2:38.
of Nazareth = the Nazarene. See Acts 2:22. This is the seventh and last occ of the title in Acts.
also did = did also. He not only thought, but acted.
shut up. Greek. katakleio. Only here and Luke 3:20.
authority. Greek. exousia. App-172.
from. Greek. para. App-104.
chief priests. Greek. archiereus, as in Acts 25:15.
put to death. Greek. anaireo. See Acts 2:23.
gave = cast. Greek. kataphero. See Acts 20:9.
voice = vote. Greek. psephos. The pebble used for voting. Only here and Revelation 2:17.
I punished . . . and = punishing them . . ., I. See Acts 22:5.
in = throughout. Greek. kata. App-104.
compelled = was compelling, or constraining, as in Acts 28:19. Greek. anankazo.
mad against = maddened against. Greek. emmainomai. Only here. Compare Acts 26:24.
strange = foreign. Literally the cities outside (Greek. exo).
Whereupon = In (Greek. en) which (circumstances).
went = was going.
to = unto. Greek. eis. App-104.
commission. Greek. epitrope. Only here. Compare the verb epitrepo (Acts 26:1).
saw. Greek. eidon. App-133.
in. Greek. kata. App-104.
light. Greek. phos. App-130.
from heaven. Greek. ouranothen. See Acts 14:17.
above. Greek. huper. App-104.
brightness. Greek. lamprotes. Only here. Compare the adjective lampros (Acts 10:30).
shining round about. Greek. perilampo. Only here and Luke 2:9.
fallen = fallen down. Greek. katapipto. Only here and Acts 28:6.
earth. Greek. ge. App-129.
speaking. Greek. lalo. App-121., but the texts read "saying" (lego).
and saying. The texts omit.
Hebrew. See Acts 21:40.
tongue = dialect. See Acts 1:19.
Saul, Saul. Gr. Saoul, Saoul. See Acts 9:4.
it is, &c. Figure of speech Paroemia. App-6.
kick. Greek. laktizo. Onlyhere.
Lord. Greek. kurios. App-98.
rise. Greek. anistemi. App-178.:1.
stand. Greek. histemi.
have appeared unto = was seen by. Greek. horao. App-133.
make = appoint. Greek. procheirizomai. See Acts 22:14.
minister. Greek. huperetes. App-190.
appear. Greek. horao, as above.
Delivering. Greek. exaireo. See Acts 7:10.
people. Greek. laos. See Acts 2:47.
Gentiles. Greek. ethnos. Contrast Acts 26:4.
send. Greek. apostello. App-174.
and to turn = that they may turn.
turn. Greek. epistrepho. Compare Acts 3:19.
from. Greek. apo. App-104. Compare Colossians 1:13.
power = authority. Greek. exousia, as in Acts 26:10.
sins. Greek. hamartia. App-128.
inheritance = a part. Greek. kleros. See Acts 1:17.
faith Greek. pistis. App-150.
in = towards. Greek. eis. App-104.
disobedient. Gr. apeithes. Compare App-150. Occurs elsewhere Luke 1:17. Romans 1:30. 1 Timothy 3:2. Titus 1:16; Titus 8:3. "Not disobedient", which means emphatically "obedient", is the Figure of speech Tapeinosis. App-6.
unto = to.
of = in. Greek. en. App-104.
throughout. Greek. eis. App-104.
repent. Greek. metanoeo. App-111.
meet = worthy of, or answering to. Compare Matthew 3:8.
repentance. Greek. metanoia. App-111.
caught. Greek. sullambano. See Acts 1:16.
temple. Greek. hieron. See Matthew 23:16.
went about = were attempting. Greek. peiraomai. Only here.
kill. Greek. diacheirizomai. See Acts 5:30.
help. Greek. epikouria. Only here. A medical word.
of = frorn. Greek. para. App-104. But the texts read apo.
continue = stand. Greek. histemi. Same as Acts 26:16. See the Structure.
unto = until. Greek. achri.
witnessing. Same word as "testify" (Acts 26:5).
none, &c. = nothing (Greek. oudeis) except the things which.
prophets. See Exodus 4:16 and App-82.
Moses. See Acts 3:22.
did say = spake. Greek. laleo. App-121.
That = If. Greek. ei. App-118. Compare Acts 26:8.
Christ = the Messiah. App-98.
should suffer = is liable or destined to suffer. Greek. pathetos. Only here. Justin Martyr puts the word into the mouth of Trypho the Jew, in his dialogue, Ch. xxxvi.
that should, &c. = by (Greek. ek) a resurrection (Greek. anastasis. App-178.) of the dead (Greek. nekron. App-139.)
shew = proclaim. Greek. katangello. App-121.
Festus, &c. To Festus the resurrection of dead persons was as much beyond the range of possibility as it is to myriads to-day. "Modern views" have relegated the resurrection, as the hope of the believer, to the the background.
beside thyself = mad. Greek. mainomai. See Acts 12:15.
learning. Literally letters (Greek. gramma). As we say "a man of letters". Compare John 7:15.
make = turn or pervert. Greek. peritrepo. Only here. A medical word.
mad = to (Greek. eis) madness. Greek. mania. Only here.
I am . . . mad. Greek. mainomai, as in Acts 26:24.
speak forth. Greek. apophthengomai. See Acts 2:4.
words. Greek. rhema. See Mark 9:32.
knoweth. Greek. epistamai. App-132.
of = conoerning. Greek. peri. App-104.
also I speak freely = I speak, using boldness also.
am persuaded. Greek. peitho. App-150.
none. A double negative. Greek. ou ouden.
believest. Greek. pisteuo. App-150. .
Almost. Greek. En oligo. In a little, i.e., briefly, or in short. Compare Ephesians 3:3. Paul, carried away by his subject, ceases to be the advocate for the prisoner and has become the advocate for God. Agrippa perceives it, and intervenes with "To put it briefly, thou art persuading me to become a Christian. "There is no ground for supposing that Agrippa was "almost persuaded".
Christian. See Acts 11:26.
would = could wish. Greek. euchomai. App-134.
also all = all also.
almost, and altogether. Literally in (Greek. en) little and in (Greek. en) great. Figure of speech Synceceiosis. App-6. He takes up Agrippa"s words with a higher meaning.
And when, &c. All the texts omit.
king. Paul"s appeal had taken the case out of the hands of Festus; so this was not a court of justice, but an inquiry to please Agrippa, and to enable Festus to make his report to the Emperor. Agrippa was the chairman (verses: Acts 26:1, Acts 26:24, Acts 26:26) and so gave the signal for closing the inquiry, probably afraid lest any more such searching questions should be put to him.
sat with them. Greek. sunkathemai. Only here and Mark 14:54.
gone aside. Greek. anachoreo. See Acts 23:19.
talked. Greek. laleo. App-121.
between themselves = to (Greek. pros. App-104.) one another,
man. Greek. anthropos. App-123.
nothing. Greek. oudeis, as Acts 22:26.
might have been = could have been, or was able to be.
set at liberty. Greek. apoluo. App-174.
if. Greek. ei, as in Acts 26:8.
appealed. Greek. epikaleomai. See Acts 25:11.
when = as.
determined = decided. Greek. krino. App-122.
sail. Greek. apopleo. See Acts 13:4.
delivered = were delivering Greek. paradidomi. See Acts 3:13.
certain. Greek. tines. App-124.
other. Greek. heteros. App-124.
unto = to.
one, &c. = a centurion of an Augustan cohort, by name Julius.
band = cohort Greek. speira. See Matthew 27:27.
entering into = having embarked upon. Greek. epibaino. See Acts 20:18.
ship. Greek. ploion. The usual word for "ship".
Adramyttium. A city in Mysia, in the province of Asia, at the head of the gulf of that name.
launched. Greek. anago. See Acts 13:13.
meaning = being about. According to the texts this does not refer to "we" but to the ship. It was on the return voyage to Adramyttium by the coasts of Asia.
sail. Greek. pleo. See Acts 21:3.
by, &c. = to the places against (Greek. kata) Asia.
with. Greek. sun. App-104.
next. Greek. heteros, as in Acts 27:1.
touched = landed. Greek. katago. See Acts 21:3.
Sidon. The great port of Phoenicia about 70 miles north of Caesarea. The wind must therefore have been favourable, south-south-west.
courteously = kindly. Greek. philanthropos. Only here. Compare App-135.
entreated . . . and = using. Greek. chraomai. Elsewhere translated "use".
gave . . . liberty. Greek. epitrepo. See Acts 26:1.
refresh himself = obtain (Greek. tunchano. See Acts 26:22) their care (Greek. epimeleia. Only here).
sailed under: i.e. under the lee (of Cyprus). Greek. hopopleo. Only here and Acts 27:7.
because. Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 27:2.
sailed over = sailed across. Greek. diapleo. Only here.
sea of, &c. = sea which is along (Greek. kata. App-104.) Cilicia, &c.
came = came down, or landed, as in Acts 18:22.
to = unto. Greek. eis. App-104.
centurion. Greek. hekatontarchos. See Acts 21:32.
Alexandria. Egypt was the granary of the ancient world, and this was a corn ship, bound for Italy. See Acts 27:38.
put us = caused us to embark. Greek. embibazo. Only here. A medical word, used of setting a dislocated limb.
therein = into (Greek. eis) it.
when, &c. = sailing slowly. Greek. braduploeo. Only here. After leaving the lee of Cyprus, the wind, hitherto astern, would now be on their port bow, and as ancient ships had not the same facility in tacking as modern ones, they could not sail as "near to the wind", not nearer than seven points, it is believed. But illustrations on coins, &c, show that the ancients understood quite well to arrange their sails so as to "beat to windward".
many = in (Greek. en) many (Greek. hikanos, as Acts 14:3, "long").
over against. Greek. kata. App-104.
Cnidus. An important city, situated at the extreme south-west of Asia Minor. Referred to in 1 Macc. 15.23.
Crete. Known also as Candia. Salmone was its eastern cape.
hardly. Greek. molis, as Acts 27:7.
passing. Greek. paralegomai. Only here and Acts 27:13. They had difficulty in weathering the point.
unto. Greek. eis. App-104.
The fair havens = Fair Havens. It bears the same name still.
spent = passed. Greek. diaginomai. See Acts 25:13.
sailing. Greek. ploos. See Acts 21:7.
now = already.
dangerous. Greek. episphales. Only here.
fast: i.e. the tenth day of the seventh month, the day of Atonement, about Oct. 1.
now already = already.
admonished Greek. paraineo. Only here and Acts 27:22.
perceive. Greek. theoreo. App-133.:11.
voyage. Same as "sailing" in Acts 27:9.
will = is about to.
also of our lives = of our lives also.
lives. Greek. psuche. App-110.
Nevertheless = But.
centurion. He was in authority, being on imperial service.
believed. Greek. peitho. App-150.
master. Literally steersman. Greek. kubernetes. Only here, and Revelation 18:17.
owner, &c. = shipowner. Greek. naukleros. Only here.
spoken = said. Greek. lego.
by. Greek. hupo. App-104.
not commodious = not well situated. Greek. aneuthetos. Only here.
to winter in = for (Greek. pros) wintering (Greek. paracheimasia. Only here).
advised = gave their decision. Greek. boule. App-102.
depart. Same as "launch", Acts 27:2.
by any means = at least.
attain. Greek. katantao. See Acts 16:1.
Phenice. Now Lutro. At the western end of the island.
and lieth = looking. Greek. blepo. App-133.
toward = down. Greek. kata.
south west = south-west wind. Greek. lips. Only here.
north west = north-west wind. Greek. choros. Only here. The meaning is that the harbour looked in the same direction as that in which these winds were 15
borne along. blew, i.e. north-east and south-east, as in Revised Version.
blew softly. Greek. hupopneo. Only here.
Purpose. See Acts 11:23.
loosing. Greek. airo, to raise. Here it means to weigh anchor.
sailed . . . by. Same as "pass", Acts 27:8.
close. Greek. asson. Comp. of anchi, near. Only here.
But not long after. Literally But after not much (time).
arose against it = beat down from it (i.e. Crete).
arose. Greek. ballo. App-174. This verb is sometimes used intransitively.
against = down. Greek. kata. App-104.
tempestuous = typhonic. Greek. tuphonikos. Onlyhere.
Euroclydon. The texts (not the Syriac) read Eurakulon, which means north-north-east wind. But if so, it would hardly have been introduced by the words "which is called". It was evidently a hurricane, not uncommon in those waters, and called "Euroclydon" locally and by the sailors.
caught. Greek. sunarpazo. See Acts 6:12.
bear up into = face. Literally look in the eye of. Greek. antophthalmeo. Only here.
we let her drive. Literally giving her up (Greek. epididomi) we were driven (borne along, pass, of Greek. phero). The Authorized Version rendering is the exact nautical expression.
running under = having run under the lee of. Greek. hupotrecho. Onlyhere.
island. Greek. nesion, a small island, dim. of nesos (Acts 13:6). Only here.
Clauda. Clauda (some texts, Cauda) was due south of Phenice.
come by = become masters of. Greek. perikrates. Onlyhere.
taken up. Greek. airo. See Acts 27:13.
used. Greek. chraomai. See Acts 27:3.
helps. Greek. boetheia. Only here and Hebrews 4:16.
undergirding. Greek. hupozdnnumi. Only here. The process of passing a cable or chain round a ship to prevent her going to pieces is called "frapping".
lest. Greek. me. App-105.
quicksands. Greek. surtis. Only here. There are two gulfs on the north coast of Africa, full of shoals and sandbanks, called Syrtis Major and Syrtis Minor. It may be the former of these, now Sidra, into which they were afraid of being driven.
strake sail. Literally having lowered the gear.
strake. Gr chalao. See Luke 5:4.
exceedingly. Greek. sphodros. Only here. The usual word is sphodros as in Matthew 2:10.
tossed with a tempest. Greek. cheimazomai. Only here. Compare Acts 27:12
next. Greek. hexes. See Acts 21:1.
lightened the ship = they began to jettison the cargo. Literally they were making a casting out. Greek. ekbole Only here.
we. The texts read "they, "which would mean the crew. but it would be superfluous to say of them, "with our own hands. "Luke means that everyone was pressed into the service, prisoners and all.
cast out. Greek. rhipto. See Luke 4:35.
with our own hands. Greek. autocheir. Only here. To emphasize the fact that all were called to help in this time of peril.
tackling. Greek. skeue. The yard, sail, and all the ships furnishings. Only here, but used in the Septuagint Jonah 1:5.
neither . . . nor. Greek. mete . . . mete.
in = for Greek. epi. App-104
appeared = shone. Greek. epiphaino. App-106
after long abstinence. Literally much fasting having taken place (Greek. huparcho. See Luke 9:49).
should = ought to
hearkened. Greek. peitharcheo. See Acts 5:29
from. Greek. apo. App-104
harm. Same as "hurt" (Acts 27:10)
loss. Same as "damage" (Acts 27:10)
now. See Acts 4:29.
exhort. Same as "admonish" (Acts 27:9).
loss = casting away. Greek. apobole. Only here and Romans 11:15.
any man"s life = a life.
among = out of. Greek. ek. App-104.
but = except. Greek. plen.
stood by. Greek. paristemi. Compare Acts 1:10.
the = an.
serve Greek. latreuo. App-137and App-190
must Same as "should, "Acts 27:21.
be brought lo. Greek. idou. App-133
given = granted. Greek. charizomai. App-184
believe. Greek. pisteuo App-150
even as. Literally thus according to (Greek. kata. App-104) the manner in which
told = spoken to. Greek. leo App-121
Howbeit = but
cast Greek. ekpipto. Sam as "fall" (Acts 27:17).
driven up and down. Greek. diaphero = to carry hither and thither. Compare 13, 49. Mark 11:16. Then "to differ", as in the other occurances. Matthew 6:26; Matthew 10:31; Matthew 12:12. Luke 12:7, Luke 12:24. Romans 2:18. 1 Corinthians 15:41. Galatians 1:2, Galatians 1:6; Galatians 4:1. Philippians 1:1, Philippians 1:10.
Adria = the Adria. In Paul"s day this term included the part of the Mediterranean lying south of Italy, east of Sicily, and west of Greece. Josephus was on board a ship which foundered in the Adriatic Sea and was picked up by a ship of Cyrene, which landed him at Puteoli (Life, 3).
about. Greek. kata. App-104.
deemed = were supposing. See Acts 13:25.
they drew, &c. = some country was drawing near to them. Greek. prosago. See Acts 16:20.
sounded = having sounded. Greek. bolizo. Only here.
and = they.
fathoms. Greek. orguia. See App-51.
lest = lest perchance.
upon. The texts read kata. App-104.
rocks = rough (Greek. trachus. Only here and Luke 3:5) places.
out of. Greek. ek. App-104.
wished = were praying. Greek. euchomai. App-134.
for the day = that the day would come.
about = seeking.
when, &c = and had let down. Greek. chalao, as in Acts 27:17.
though they would have = being about to.
cast. Greek. ekteino. Elsewhere (fifteen times) translated "stretch" or "put forth".
foreship = bows or prow. Greek. prora. Only here and Acts 27:41.
Except = If. not. Greek. ean (App-118) me (App-105).
abide. Greek. meno. Seep. 1511.
cannot = a re not (Greek. ou. App-105) able to.
ropes. Greek. schoinion. Only here and John 2:15 (cords).
besought = was entreating. Greek. parakaleo. App-134.
take. Greek. metalambano. See Acts 2:46.
meat = food, or nourishment. Greek. trophe.
This day, &c. Literally Tarrying (or waiting) to-day, the fourteenth day.
tarried. Greek. prosdokao. App-183.
and continued = ye continue. Greek. diateleo. Only here.
fasting = without food. Greek. asitos. Only here. Compare Acts 27:21. Figure of speech Synecdoche. App-6.
taken. Greek. proslambano. See Acts 17:5.
nothing. Greek. mideis.
pray. Same as "besought", Acts 27:33.
is. Greek. huparcho. See Luke 9:48.
there shall not, &c. Literally a hair of no one (Greek. oudeis) of you shall fall from his head
hair. Greek. thrix. Only occurs in Acts.
from. Greek. apo, with texts. App-104.
when, &c. = having said these things, and taken bread, he.
broken. Greek. klao. See Acts 2:46.
in all. . . . two hundred, &c. Literally all the souls two hundred threescore and sixteen.
lightened. Greek. kouphizo. Only here.
and cast out = casting out.
wheat. Greek. sitos.
knew = recognized. Greek. epiginosko. App-132.
land. Greek. ge. App-129.
discovered = perceived. App-133.
shore = beach.
were minded = took counsel or planned. Greek. bouleuo.
it were possible = they might be able.
thrust in. Greek. exotheo. Only here and Acts 7:45.
taken up. Greek. periaireo. Same as in Acts 27:20.
committed. Greek. eao. Same as "let", Acts 27:32.
themselves = them, i.e. the anchors. They "slipped" the anchors.
rudder bands = lashings of the rudders.
rudder. Greek. pidalion. Only here and James 3:4. There were two great paddles, one on either side, used for steering.
bands. Greek. zeukteria. The tackle by which the paddles were lashed to the hull when the ship was at anchor. Only here.
mainsail = foresail. Greek. artemon. Only here. The mainsail had been thrown overboard (Acts 27:19).
made = were holding on. Gr. katecho. See 2 Thessalonians 2:6.
toward = for. Greek. eis. App-104.
And = But.
where two seas met. Greek. dilhalassos. Only here. A sand bank formed by opposing currents.
ran . . . aground. Greek. epokello, but the texts read epikello, meaning the same. Only here.
ship. Greek. naus. Only here. Elsewhere the word for "ship" is ploion. It was no longer a ship, but a mere floating hulk.
forepart. Same as "foreship", Acts 27:30. Add "indeed".
stuck fast, and = having stuck fast. Greek. ereido. Only here.
remained. Greek. meno, as in Acts 27:31.
unmoveable. Greek. asaleutos. Only here and Hebrews 12:28.
hinder part = stern, Acts 27:29.
was broken = began to break up. Greek. luo. See Acts 13:43.
with = by, as in Acts 27:11.
violence. Greek. bia. See Acts 5:26.
counsel. Greek. boule. App-102. See Acts 27:12.
to kill = in order that (Greek. hina) they might kill.
any = any one. App-123.
of them. Omit.
should swim out, and = having swum out. Greek. ekkolumbao. Only here.
escape = make good his escape. Greek. diapheugo. Only here.
willing = purposing. Greek. boulomai. App-102.
save. Greek. diasozo. See Matthew 14:36.
kept = hindered.
purpose. Greek. boulema. App-102. Only here and Romans 9:19.
could = were able to.
swim. Greek. kolumbao. Only here. Compare Acts 27:42.
should, &c. = having first cast (themselves) overboard. Greek. aporrhipto. Only here.
and get. Literally should go forth. Greek. exeimi. See Acts 13:42.
to = upon. Greek. epi. App-104.
the rest. Greek. loipos: App-124.
some = some indeed.
boards = planks. Greek. sanis. Only here.
broken pieces: i.e. any kind of wreckage. Literally some of the things.
of = from. Greek. apo. App-104.
escaped all safe = all escaped safe (same as "save", Acts 27:43). In this chapter there are over fifty words, mostly nautical, found nowhere else in the N.T.
when they were = having.
they. The texts read "we".
knew. Greek. epiginosko App-132.
island. Greek. nesos. See Acts 27:26.
Melita = Malta It was in the jurisdiction of the Praetor of Sicily St. Paul"s Bay, the traditional scene of the shipwreck, fulfils all the conditions.
barbarous people. Greek. barbaros. Elsewhere, Acts 28:4. Romans 1:14. 1 Corinthians 14:11. Colossians 3:11. The Greeks called all people who did not speak Greek barbarians, The Maltese were Phoenicians.
no = not. Greek. ou. App-105.
little = ordinary, as in Acts 19:11.
kindness. Greek. philanthropia. App-135.
fire. Greek. pura. Only here, and in Acts 28:3.
received. Greek. proslambano. See Acts 17:5.
because of. Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 28:2.
present. Greek. ephistemi. Literally to come upon, as in Luke 2:9.
gathered. Greek. sustrepho. Only here.
bundle = multitude. Greek. plethos.
sticks. Greek. phruganon Only here.
out of. Greek. ek. App-104. but the texts read apo (App-104.)
heat. Greek. therme. Only here.
fastened. Greek. kathapto. Only here.
saw. Greek. eidon. App-133.
beast. Greek. therion. See Acts 11:6.
hang = hanging.
on = from. Greek. ek. App-104.
among themselves = to (Greek. pros. App-104.) one another.
man. Greek. anthropos. App-123.
though he hath. Literally having.
the sea = out of (Greek. ek) the sea.
vengeance. Greek. he dike. App-177. The Greeks personified Justice, vengeance, and other ideas; as we do when we speak of Nemesis.
And he = He then indeed.
shook off. Greek. apotinasso. Only here, and Luke 9:5.
felt = suffered.
no = nothing. Greek. oudeis.
harm = evil. Greek. kakos. App-128.
Howbeit = But.
looked = were expecting, or watching in expectation. Greek. prosdokao. App-133.
when = that.
should have = was about to.
swollen = swell. Greek. pimpremi Only here.
dead = a corpse. Greek. nekros. App-139.
suddenly. See Acts 2:2.
a great while = for (Greek. epi. App-104.) much (time).
saw. Greek. theoreo. App-133.
no = nothing. Greek. medeis.
changed their minds. Greek. metaballomai. Only here.
In, &c. = Now in (Greek. en) the parts about (Greek. peri. App-104.) that place.
were. Greek. huparcho. See Luke 9:48.
possessions = lands. Greek. chorion. See Matthew 26:36.
chief man = first. Greek. protos. This title has been found on an inscription.
whose name was = by name.
received. Greek. anadechomai. Only here and Hebrews 11:17.
sick of = taken with. Greek. sunecho. See Luke 4:38.
a fever = fevers. Greek. puretos. Elsewhere Matthew 8:15. Mark 1:31. Luke 4:38, Luke 4:39. John 4:52. Always in singular. But found in plural in medical works. Perhaps to convey the idea of severity which is expressed by "great" in Luke 4:38. or of their recurrence bloody flux. Greek. duaenteria. Hence Engl, dysentery. Only here
prayed. Greek. proseuchomai. App-134.
healed. Greek. iaomai. See Luke 6:17.
So = But.
others = the rest. App-124.
healed. Greek. therapeuo. See Luke 6:18 and App-137.
also honoured, &c. = honoured us with many honours also.
departed = sailed. Greek. anago. See "loosed" (Acts 13:13).
laded us with = laid on us.
ship of Alexandria. Another corn ship.
wintered. Greek. paracheimazo. See Acts 27:12.
whose sign, &c. = with sign the Dioscuri.
sign. Greek. parasemos. Only here. Literally signed or marked.
Castor and Pollux. Greek. Dioskouroi. Literally sons of Zeus. These twin sons of Zeus and Leda were deified and their names given to the bright stars in the constellation Gemini. They were regarded as the patron deities of sailors. The "sign" was carried on the prow of the vessel, after the manner of our "figure-heads".
landing. Greek. katago. See Acts 21:3.
Syracuse. An important town in Sicily (S. E.), still bearing the same name.
tarried. Greek. epimeno. See Acts 10:48.
fetched a compass = having tacked about. Greek. perierchomai. See Acts 19:13. Figure of speech Idioma. App-6.
and came = arrived. Greek. katantao. See Acts 16:1.
Rhegium. Now Reggio, on the Straits of Messina.
the south wind blew, and = a south wind having sprung up. Greek. epiginomai. Only here.
the next day = the second day. Greek. deuteraios. Only here.
Puteoli. On the Bay of Naples. It was here Josephus and his shipwrecked companions were landed. Now Pozzuoli.
desired = entreated. Greek. parakaleo. App-134.
with. Greek. epi. App-104., but the texts read para (xii. 2).
went = came.
toward. Greek. eis. App-104. Rome was used in a more extended sense here than in Acts 28:16.
of us = the things (i.e. the news) concerning (Greek. peri) us.
to meet us. Literally for (Greek. eis) meeting (Greek. apantesis. See Matthew 25:1) us.
Appii forum. The market of Appius, a small town on the Appian Way, forty-three miles from Rome.
The three taverns. About ten miles further on. taverns. Greek. taberne transliterated from Latin. taberna. Only here.
thanked. Greek. eucharisteo. See Acts 27:35.
courage. Greek. tharsos. Only here. Compare Acts 23:11.
centurion. Greek. hekatontarchos. See Acts 21:32. Most texts omit this clause.
delivered. Greek. paradidomi. See Acts 3:13.
captain of the guard. Greek. stratopedarches. Only here. Probably the Protect of the Praetorians.
Paul was suffered. Literally it was permitted (Greek. epitrepo. See Acts 26:1) Paul.
dwell. Greek. meno. See p. 1511.
kept = guarded. He was chained by the wrist to the prisoner. Paul speaks of this chain in Acts 28:20. Ephesians 6:20. Philippians 1:1, Philippians 1:7, Philippians 1:13, Philippians 1:14, Philippians 1:16. Colossians 4:18. Philemon 1:10, Philemon 1:13.
chief = first, as in Acts 28:7.
unto. Greek. pros. App-104.
Men, &c. See Acts 1:16.
nothing. Greek. oudeis.
people. Greek. laos. See Acts 2:47.
customs of our fathers = the ancestral customs.
customs. Greek. ethos. See Acts 6:14.
of our fathers. Greek. patroos. See Acts 22:3.
prisoner. See Acts 25:14.
examined. Greek. anakrino. App-122.
would have = were wishing to. Greek. boulomai. App-102.
let . . . go. Greek. apoluo. App-174.
cause. Greek. aitia, as in Acts 25:27.
spake against. Greek. antilego. See Acts 13:45.
constrained. Greek. anankazo. See Acts 26:11 (the only other occurance in Acts).
appeal unto. Greek. epikaleomai. See Acts 25:11.
accuse. Greek. kategoreo. See Acts 22:30.
nation. Greek. ethnos.
called for. Greek. parakaleo, as in Acts 28:14.
speak with. Greek. proslaleo. See Acts 13:43.
for. Greek. heneken. First occurance. Matthew 5:10 (for the sake of).
the hope of Israel = the Messiah whom Israel hoped for. Figure of speech Metonymy, App-6.
neither. Greek. oute.
out of = from. Greek. apo. App-104.
concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.
shewed = reported. Greek. apangello. See Acts 4:23.
spake. Greek. laleo. App-121.
any harm = anything evil (Greek. poneros. App-128.)
desire = think it right. Greek. axioo. See Acts 15:38.
of = from. Greek. para. App-104.
as, &c. = concerning this sect indeed.
sect. Greek. hairesis. . See Acts 5:17.
we know = it is known (Greek. gnostos. See Acts 1:19) to us.
appointed = arranged. Greek. tasso. See Acts 13:48.
expounded. Greek. ektithemi. See Acts 7:21.
testified. Greek. diamarturomai. See Acts 2:40. Ninth and last occurance in Acts.
kingdom of God. The Messianic kingdom was the subject. The mention of the Lord Jesus, and the law of Moses, and the prophets, establishes this. See App-114.
persuading. Greek. peitho. App-150.
Moses. Nineteenth occurance in Acts. See Matthew 8:4.
till. Greek. heos.
evening. Greek. hespera. See Acts 4:3.
believed = were persuaded of. Greek. peitho, as in Acts 28:23.
departed. Literally were being sent away. App-174. The imperfect suggests that the chief men (Acts 28:17) broke up the meeting and sent the rest away lest they should be convinced.
after that, &c. = Paul having spoken.
word Greek. rhama. See Mark 9:32.
Well = Rightly.
the Holy Ghost = the Holy Spirit. App-101.
by = through. Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 28:1.
our. The texts read "your".
Hearing = In hearing. Greek. akoe. Compare Acts 17:20.
not = by no means. Greek. ou me. App-105.
understand. Greek. suniemi. Compare App-132.
seeing . . . see. Greek. blepo. App-133.
perceive. Greek. eidon. App-133. Figure of speech Polyptoton. App-6.
is waxed gross = has become fat. Greek. pachunomai. Only here and Matthew 13:15.
their ears, &c. = with their ears they hear heavily.
closed. Greek. kammuo. Only here and Matthew 13:15.
lest = lest at any time. Greek. mepote.
be converted = turn again. Greek. epistrepho. See Acts 3:19.
unto = to.
is sent = was sent. Greek. apostelo. App-174.
Gentiles. Greek. ethnos.
words = things. The texts omit this verse.
and had = having.
reasoning = disputation. Greek. suzetesis. See Acts 15:2.
two . . . years. Greek. dietia. See Acts 24:27. This was 61-63 A.D.
received = received freely. Greek. apodechomai. See Acts 2:41.
Preaching. Greek. kerusso. App-121.
which concern = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.
the Lord. App-98.
Jesus Christ. App-98.
confidence = boldness. Greek. parrhesia. See Acts 4:13.
no man, &c. = unhindered. Greek. akolutos. Only here.