Christian Churches of God
Commentary on Revelation
(Edition 3.0 20210322-20210410-20220625)
Commentary on Chapters 18-22.
Christian Churches of God
(Copyright © 2021, 2022 Wade Cox)
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Commentary on Revelation Part 5
Revelation Chapters 18-22 (RSV)
1After this I saw another angel coming down from heaven, having great authority; and the earth was made bright with his splendor. 2And he called out with a mighty voice, "Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great! It has become a dwelling place of demons, a haunt of every foul spirit, a haunt of every foul and hateful bird; 3for all nations have drunk the wine of her impure passion, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth have grown rich with the wealth of her wantonness." 4Then I heard another voice from heaven saying, "Come out of her, my people, lest you take part in her sins, lest you share in her plagues; 5for her sins are heaped high as heaven, and God has remembered her iniquities. 6Render to her as she herself has rendered, and repay her double for her deeds; mix a double draught for her in the cup she mixed. 7As she glorified herself and played the wanton, so give her a like measure of torment and mourning. Since in her heart she says, 'A queen I sit, I am no widow, mourning I shall never see,' 8so shall her plagues come in a single day, pestilence and mourning and famine, and she shall be burned with fire; for mighty is the Lord God who judges her." 9And the kings of the earth, who committed fornication and were wanton with her, will weep and wail over her when they see the smoke of her burning; 10they will stand far off, in fear of her torment, and say, "Alas! alas! thou great city, thou mighty city, Babylon! In one hour has thy judgment come." 11And the merchants of the earth weep and mourn for her, since no one buys their cargo any more, 12cargo of gold, silver, jewels and pearls, fine linen, purple, silk and scarlet, all kinds of scented wood, all articles of ivory, all articles of costly wood, bronze, iron and marble, 13cinnamon, spice, incense, myrrh, frankincense, wine, oil, fine flour and wheat, cattle and sheep, horses and chariots, and slaves, that is, human souls. 14"The fruit for which thy soul longed has gone from thee, and all thy dainties and thy splendor are lost to thee, never to be found again!" 15The merchants of these wares, who gained wealth from her, will stand far off, in fear of her torment, weeping and mourning aloud, 16"Alas, alas, for the great city that was clothed in fine linen, in purple and scarlet, bedecked with gold, with jewels, and with pearls! 17In one hour all this wealth has been laid waste." And all shipmasters and seafaring men, sailors and all whose trade is on the sea, stood far off 18and cried out as they saw the smoke of her burning, "What city was like the great city?" 19And they threw dust on their heads, as they wept and mourned, crying out, "Alas, alas, for the great city where all who had ships at sea grew rich by her wealth! In one hour she has been laid waste 20Rejoice over her, O heaven, O saints and apostles and prophets, for God has given judgment for you against her!" 21Then a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone and threw it into the sea, saying, "So shall Babylon the great city be thrown down with violence, and shall be found no more; 22and the sound of harpers and minstrels, of flute players and trumpeters, shall be heard in thee no more; and a craftsman of any craft shall be found in thee no more; and the sound of the millstone shall be heard in thee no more; 23and the light of a lamp shall shine in thee no more; and the voice of bridegroom and bride shall be heard in thee no more; for thy merchants were the great men of the earth, and all nations were deceived by thy sorcery. 24And in her was found the blood of prophets and of saints, and of all who have been slain on earth."
Intent Chapter 18
(cf. No 120)
The KJV refers to Babylon as a great city. However, the term is implied from other texts, particularly Revelation 18:10,18,19,21-24.
This false religious system deceives the whole world by sorcery. The word is pharmakeia or pharmacy, i.e. medicine, hence magic and thence sorcery. The Babylonian system relied on magic and mysticism as its religious base. It spread to the whole world before the final destruction. It is a whore from Revelation 17:1. The whore is a woman or Church in the prophetic sense. The system is seated on a city of seven hills (Rev. 17:9). This woman commits spiritual fornication with the kings of the Earth over a long period of time. The Beast that is to rule the Earth comes from the kings that this whore has set up (Rev. 17:14). This system makes war with the Lamb. Thus the system is alive until the return of the Messiah. The whore is drunk with the blood of the saints and the martyrs of Jesus. This church has thus killed many of the elect on religious grounds. This system is powerful and wields authority over a system which itself is blasphemous (Rev. 17:3-6).
Revelation 18:1-24: This city is destroyed along with the cities that rule with her and the entire financial system of the world as ruled by this Beast. This Beast that destroyed this whore is destroyed and then through its wanton rebellion places the entire world under the vengeance of God. It is doubtful in the extreme if the American and World political system can hold together over these last days as its system is torn apart and its social groups reorganise into armed camps and probably insurrection. Internment camps will be all over the West as terrorists are interned.
Verses 1-3 show a great Angel coming down with great authority and he called out to declare with a mighty voice that Babylon is fallen. As it fell centuries ago it must be referring to the system that was established under Daniel Chapter 2 and the sequence of the empires and the centres that take over the power of the false system under the successive empires of the Beast (cf. F027ii, F027xiii)). The final system is the Church under Rome and the system in conflict, the Empire of the Beast, formed in ten regions that destroy the Whore of Revelation 17. The city is full of demons and it is in conflict with the other false religions of the world coming out of the Middle East and Asia against its false religion in the West with her harlot daughters. It is with her and these that the kings of the earth and all nations have drunk of the wine of her impure passions and committed fornication with her. It is her false doctrines that are to be destroyed along with her.
Then another voice (v. 4) spoke to the people of God and said come out of her my people lest you share in her plagues, for her sins are heaped as high as heaven and God has remembered her iniquity (v. 5). This religious whore seated at the last centre of the seven hills that has corrupted the laws of God and rendered them of no effect will be destroyed as she herself has inflicted on the servants of God and she will be repaid double and she will receive a double draught mixed for her in the cup she mixed (v. 6). As she glorified herself and played the wanton, so she will be given a like measure of torment and mourning as she says she sits as a queen, she is no widow and mourning she shall never see (v. 7). God has said that so shall her plagues come in a single day, pestilence and mourning and famine, and she shall be burned with fire for mighty is the Lord God who judges her (v. 8). And the kings of the earth that committed fornication and were wanton with her will weep and wail over her when they see the smoke of her burning. They will distance themselves in fear of her torment. They will be frightened because in one hour has her judgment come (vv. 9-10). So also the Merchants of the earth weep and mourn for what we see is the destruction of the commercial systems of the planet. This is not just from Rome and Europe but of the commercial systems of the planet including all their produce and their human slaves (vv. 11-13). All of the wealth and splendour of this system will be laid waste. The merchants will stand far off in fear of the torment weeping and mourning aloud (vv. 14-15). In one hour all the wealth of this great system is laid waste (vv. 16-17). It is this religious system that grew into the EU with its religious system in Rome and Canterbury and Greece and Moscow which will be destroyed and burnt along with its commercial systems also and its entire mercantile and shipping systems destroyed in one hour (vv. 18-19).
It is clear that God has purposed her destruction and that Heaven and the Loyal Host are to rejoice and also the saints and apostles and prophets, for God has given judgment for them against this religious whore and her harlot daughters. This is obviously a massive biochemical and nuclear destruction to achieve such devastation in one prophetic hour. This at the very longest can only be less than a month and may be a fraction of that (v. 20).
God shall judge her for the penalties and punishments she has inflicted on the saints of God in all the inquisitions she has inflicted on God’s people as the elect who sought to follow His Commandments and the Testimony and Faith of Jesus Christ (cf. Role of the Fourth Commandment in the Historical Sabbath-keeping Churches of God (No. 170)). (Cf. also (No. 122), (No. 288), (No. 290) and (No.290B)).
The entire Trinitarian system will be destroyed. Babylon will be destroyed and thrown down with violence and be silenced for evermore as we see from verses 21-23. For in her was found the blood of prophets and of saints and of all who had been slain upon the earth (v. 24).
1After this I heard what seemed to be the loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, crying, "Hallelujah! Salvation and glory and power belong to our God, 2for his judgments are true and just; he has judged the great harlot who corrupted the earth with her fornication, and he has avenged on her the blood of his servants." 3Once more they cried, "Hallelujah! The smoke from her goes up for ever and ever." 4And the twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshiped God who is seated on the throne, saying, "Amen. Hallelujah!" 5And from the throne came a voice crying, "Praise our God, all you his servants, you who fear him, small and great." 6Then I heard what seemed to be the voice of a great multitude, like the sound of many waters and like the sound of mighty thunderpeals, crying, "Hallelujah! For the Lord our God the Almighty reigns. 7Let us rejoice and exult and give him the glory, for the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his Bride has made herself ready; 8it was granted her to be clothed with fine linen, bright and pure" --for the fine linen is the righteous deeds of the saints. 9And the angel said to me, "Write this: Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb." And he said to me, "These are true words of God." 10Then I fell down at his feet to worship him, but he said to me, "You must not do that! I am a fellow servant with you and your brethren who hold the testimony of Jesus. Worship God." For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy. 11Then I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse! He who sat upon it is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he judges and makes war. 12His eyes are like a flame of fire, and on his head are many diadems; and he has a name inscribed which no one knows but himself. 13He is clad in a robe dipped in blood, and the name by which he is called is The Word of God. 14And the armies of heaven, arrayed in fine linen, white and pure, followed him on white horses. 15From his mouth issues a sharp sword with which to smite the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron; he will tread the wine press of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty. 16On his robe and on his thigh he has a name inscribed, King of kings and Lord of lords. 17Then I saw an angel standing in the sun, and with a loud voice he called to all the birds that fly in midheaven, "Come, gather for the great supper of God, 18to eat the flesh of kings, the flesh of captains, the flesh of mighty men, the flesh of horses and their riders, and the flesh of all men, both free and slave, both small and great." 19And I saw the beast and the kings of the earth with their armies gathered to make war against him who sits upon the horse and against his army. 20And the beast was captured, and with it the false prophet who in its presence had worked the signs by which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped its image. These two were thrown alive into the lake of fire that burns with sulphur. 21And the rest were slain by the sword of him who sits upon the horse, the sword that issues from his mouth; and all the birds were gorged with their flesh.
Intent of Chapter 19
Salvation and Restoration of the Church of God
Over this period with the final destruction of the False system and finally by the Messiah, and from the First Resurrection (No. 143A) of the Saints, the Church of God is saved and the saints are resurrected to the Temple of God in the Millennium and all those who did not worship the Beast or take its mark will be saved and the tribes will be restored and taken to their places of heritage (Isa. 65:17-25). The world will then be taught the laws of God and the faith once delivered to the saints.
Revelation 19:1-3: God has judged the whore and salvation and glory and power belong to God. His judgments are true and just. He has judged the great harlot who has corrupted the earth with her fornication and avenged on her the blood of His Servants. The smoke of the city of the whore goes up as a perpetual monument. God is then worshipped from the Throne room by the 24 elders and the four living Creatures and from there came a voice calling for praise from His Servants small and great who fear Him (vv. 4-5).
There is then complete control and unity in the creation and the declaration of his reign is made and the Marriage supper of the Lamb is made and the Bride is clothed in fine linen which is the righteous deeds of the saints (vv. 6-8) (cf. Trumpets (No. 136)).
The angel was then given to say: Blessed are those invited to the Marriage Supper of the Lamb. These are true words of God (v. 9).
Then an important distinction is made. The angel refused any obeisance and said that only God was to be worshipped and that the Testimony of Jesus was the spirit of prophecy (v. 10). Christ is then revealed from heaven as the word of God at the head of an army of the Host all on white horses. He is faithful and true and in righteousness he judges and makes war (v. 11). He has eyes of fire and on his head are many diadems (v. 12). He is clad in a robe dipped in blood as the Word of God (v. 13). The armies of heaven that followed him were arrayed in pure white linen (v. 14). From the mouth of the Messiah issued a sharp sword with which to smite the nations and he will rule them with a rod of iron under the wrath of God (v. 15). He is inscribed with the title King of kings and Lord of Lords. The birds of the earth are called to eat the bodies of the Kings of the earth and their armies and men both small and great (vv. 16-18). The beast and the armies of the nations gathered together to make war against the Messiah and his armies. There were destroyed and the beast was captured and with it was the false prophet who had in the presence of the beast deceived all who had taken its mark and who had worshipped its image. These were false spirits as concepts that were thrown into the lake of fire as a memorial and the rest were slain by the Sword of the Word of God seated on the White Horse (vv. 20-21).
He will eliminate all false worship and the system of the demons before him.
(cf. also Wars of the End Part III: Armageddon and the Vials of the Wrath of God (No. 141E) and War Against Christ (No. 141E_2); Wars of the End Part IV: End of False Religion (No. 141F)).
Those who do not keep the Laws of God and obey Him will be forced, in the vials of the wrath of God, to come to obedience and those who will not repent will die and be dealt with in the Second Resurrection of the Dead (see the paper The Second Resurrection of the Dead and the Great White Throne Judgment (No. 143B)).
In the year 2025 the Treble Harvest will occur for the declaration of the Jubilee year from Atonement 2026 to Atonement 2027 when all nations and lands will be restored for the Jubilee Year.
The system at Jerusalem will commence the healing of the nations and the regrowth of sea life from the rivers of Jerusalem from under the Temple Mount and the city.
The rest of the world that is left alive will keep the Laws of God for the next thousand years. At the end of that thousand years Satan will be released again and the last war of the end will occur. Then the hundred years of the Second Resurrection of the Dead will occur.
1Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven, holding in his hand the key of the bottomless pit and a great chain. 2And he seized the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years, 3and threw him into the pit, and shut it and sealed it over him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years were ended. After that he must be loosed for a little while. 4Then I saw thrones, and seated on them were those to whom judgment was committed. Also I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for their testimony to Jesus and for the word of God, and who had not worshiped the beast or its image and had not received its mark on their foreheads or their hands. They came to life, and reigned with Christ a thousand years. 5The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were ended. This is the first resurrection. 6Blessed and holy is he who shares in the first resurrection! Over such the second death has no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and they shall reign with him a thousand years. 7And when the thousand years are ended, Satan will be loosed from his prison 8and will come out to deceive the nations which are at the four corners of the earth, that is, Gog and Magog, to gather them for battle; their number is like the sand of the sea. 9And they marched up over the broad earth and surrounded the camp of the saints and the beloved city; but fire came down from heaven and consumed them, 10and the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulphur where the beast and the false prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night for ever and ever. 11Then I saw a great white throne and him who sat upon it; from his presence earth and sky fled away, and no place was found for them. 12And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Also another book was opened, which is the book of life. And the dead were judged by what was written in the books, by what they had done. 13And the sea gave up the dead in it, Death and Hades gave up the dead in them, and all were judged by what they had done. 14Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire; 15and if any one's name was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire.
Intent of Chapter 20
(cf. No. 120)
The Millennium and resurrection are referred to in Revelation 20:1-15.
Note that there are two resurrections here. The First Resurrection reigns with Christ for one thousand years. The Second Resurrection occurs after the thousand years. The Great White Throne Judgment does not occur until after the thousand years are over. The saints rule with Christ over the Earth while Satan is shut away. The nations are still on the Earth over this period and Satan will deceive them again at the end of the thousand years. All activities over both resurrections are confined to the Earth. Christ as the first of the first-fruits was the only harvest to go away to God.
The general first-fruits of the wheat harvest are resurrected at the end of the two-thousand year period at the return of Messiah, as we see from 1Thessalonians 4:15-17 (F052)
1Thessalonians 4:15-17 For this we declare to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, shall not precede those who have fallen asleep. 16For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a cry of command, with the archangel's call, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first; 17then we who are alive, who are left, shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air; and so we shall always be with the Lord. (RSV)
There are thus three Festival periods, each of which has a harvest, Christ being the first as the Wave-Sheaf Offering. The elect follow. They become the House of God (1Cor. 3:16-17 (F046) from their election and receipt of the Holy Spirit from baptism and the Feast of Pentecost of 30 CE.
1Corinthians 3:16-17 Do you not know that you are God's temple and that God's Spirit dwells in you? 17If any one destroys God's temple, God will destroy him. For God's temple is holy, and that temple you are. (RSV)
The harvest of God comprises the whole Earth, which includes all mankind and the Host. The holy-day periods reflect the Plan of Salvation of the planet. God is going to redeem the Earth in spite of the demons’ and man’s obstinate behaviour. The sequence will be under the conditions which best enable the learning processes and skills to be developed in each individual.
The City of God
The last phase of the Earth’s activities is centred on the Great White Throne Judgment of Revelation 20. This takes place at the end of the Millennium after the last war of the Rebellion.
Verses 7-10: This last war involves an attack on the camp of the saints at Jerusalem. Satan is able, even after the thousand years of just rule, to persuade the nations to march against Christ again. The inherent problem is self-righteousness among the people. Satan is released in order to deal with this major impediment to the ability of mankind to participate in the Kingdom of God. After this, Satan is removed and his spiritual power is harnessed and used as a memorial to the Rebellion.
Verses 11-15: The Second Resurrection of the dead then takes place.
We have seen the process of the resurrection and the judgment of the demons and of mankind. The next phase is the handover from Christ to God (F046).
1Corinthians 15:20-28 But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the firstfruits of them that slept. 21For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. 22For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. 23But every man in his own order: Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ's at his coming. 24Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power. 25For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet. 26The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. 27For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him. 28And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all. (KJV)
This process of subjection involves also that of the subjection of Jesus Christ. Christ is thus not co-equal or co-eternal, but rather is part of the process of God becoming all in all. So there is one God and Father of all over all, and in all (see also Eph. 4:6).
This process involves the creation of a new Heaven and a new Earth where the former things are no longer remembered (Isa. 65:17). The seed of Israel will remain before God in this new system (Isa. 66:22) until all flesh is made obsolete after the resurrection at the end of the Millennium. Zion is the faithful city (Zech. 8:3). New Jerusalem comes out of Heaven (Rev. 3:12).
We await the new Heaven and the new Earth in which righteousness dwells (2Pet. 3:13). The City of God (No. 180) was awaited by the faithful from at least Abraham (Heb. 11:10). This was the vision of the patriarchs. We are put into the City (Eph. 2:6,18-22). Psalm 48 shows that the City of God is on the mountains of His holiness.
The original doctrines of the early Church were millennialist. The Church looked forward to the return of Christ and the resurrection of the saints at his return. The saints would then rule the Earth for one thousand years, after which the Second (or General) Resurrection would occur, and the judgment would follow from that thousand-year period.
There are many Old Testament Scriptures that go to Revelation 20 verses 1-15 and interrelate with those verses. Unless we understand the resurrection and the Millennium we cannot understand what is happening at the return of the Messiah. For instance we cannot understand Zechariah 14:16-19 in the establishment of the Feast of Tabernacles and the requirement to send advocates to Jerusalem. The Seventh Day Adventists cannot understand those Scriptures. They cannot understand Isaiah 66:23-24 and the restoration of the Sabbath and the New Moons, because they have a heavenly Millennium. They cannot make any sense out of the prophecies of the Old Testament relating to the return of the Messiah, because they do not understand the situation that will be established at his return.
Most people in the world are misguided, and the problem with their theology stems from the scenario that they place the Earth in at the coming of Messiah. Satan has attacked this doctrine as a fundamental source of error for 2,000 years. This doctrine marks the true Church and it has been used to attack the Church and Christianity and subvert the understanding of the Bible.
We will now look at Revelation 20:1-15.
Verses 1-3: Here we see that Satan has deceived the nations all the way up until the Millennium and the return of Jesus Christ. One of the doctrines that he attacks, and with which he deceives the nations, is the structure of God’s government in the Last Days. That’s why he is placed in the bottomless pit, because he is a deceiver and false religion flows from him.
Verse 4: This text was the major source of the confusion. It was determined by some of the early Church millennialists that this resurrection of the dead and the rulership was only given to the martyrs. That is, one had to be beheaded for the witness of Jesus to take part in the First Resurrection. That was a doctrine of an element of the Church in the first century. However, it can be read in such a way to say that those who are beheaded are separate from those who had not worshipped the beast. Those are the ones who take part in the First Resurrection.
That means that the beast power must be ongoing for 2,000 years, otherwise the saints are not tested over the entire period, and a great number of the saints cannot take part in the First Resurrection, only the martyrs. So the beast power must be conjoint. The beast power must not be a futurist interpretation of the Last Days only. The beast power must have been ongoing as well, so that the beast must be that which is conjoint with the false religious structure. So the end-time beast power must be an extension of the false religious structure, but one which destroys the false structure in the Last Days.
Verse 5: It is quite clear that there are two resurrections; the rest of the dead are at the end of the Millennium. In the First Resurrection are only those who are martyred and those who refuse to take the image of the beast. So it is quite clear we have to be tested by martyrdom, or the mark of the beast, to be in the First Resurrection.
Verse 6: Those in the First Resurrection are going to be priests of God and of Christ and reign with Christ a thousand years. They are going to be priests to something. One can’t be a priest to or of God, unless one has something to be a priest to and for, as a congregation.
Verses 7-8: There are forces out there that are physical forces. At the end of the thousand years there have to be physical people who will take up arms and march against the saints.
Verses 9-10: The beast and false prophet are an administrative system, and a system of false prophecy. They are not individuals. The concepts of these texts are dealt with in the papers The Resurrection of the Dead (No. 143) and The Judgment of the Demons (No. 080). (cf. also First Resurrection (No. 143A) and the Second Resurrection and the Great White Throne Judgment (No. 143B)). People are not thrown into the lake of fire, except for the dead bodies of those who refuse to be saved. There are no tormented spiritual beings in the lake of fire.
Verses 11-13: There is no third resurrection from verse 13. That is a manufacture of some of the Churches of God and their doctrine of fear (see the paper The Fallacy of the Third Resurrection (No. 166)).
Verses 14-15: There are concepts being burnt in the lake of fire. Simply, it is the whole structure of the Earth and its physical processes that are being destroyed.
That was given by God to Jesus Christ and written down under dictation by the apostle John. It is supported by texts in Isaiah and Zechariah and the Gospels, yet, by and large it has been ignored or thrown out.
1Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and the sea was no more. 2And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband; 3and I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, "Behold, the dwelling of God is with men. He will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself will be with them; 4he will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death shall be no more, neither shall there be mourning nor crying nor pain any more, for the former things have passed away." 5And he who sat upon the throne said, "Behold, I make all things new." Also he said, "Write this, for these words are trustworthy and true." 6And he said to me, "It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. To the thirsty I will give from the fountain of the water of life without payment. 7He who conquers shall have this heritage, and I will be his God and he shall be my son. 8But as for the cowardly, the faithless, the polluted, as for murderers, fornicators, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars, their lot shall be in the lake that burns with fire and sulphur, which is the second death." 9Then came one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls full of the seven last plagues, and spoke to me, saying, "Come, I will show you the Bride, the wife of the Lamb." 10And in the Spirit he carried me away to a great, high mountain, and showed me the holy city Jerusalem coming down out of heaven from God, 11having the glory of God, its radiance like a most rare jewel, like a jasper, clear as crystal. 12It had a great, high wall, with twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and on the gates the names of the twelve tribes of the sons of Israel were inscribed; 13on the east three gates, on the north three gates, on the south three gates, and on the west three gates. 14And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and on them the twelve names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. 15And he who talked to me had a measuring rod of gold to measure the city and its gates and walls. 16The city lies foursquare, its length the same as its breadth; and he measured the city with his rod, twelve thousand stadia; its length and breadth and height are equal. 17He also measured its wall, a hundred and forty-four cubits by a man's measure, that is, an angel's. 18The wall was built of jasper, while the city was pure gold, clear as glass. 19The foundations of the wall of the city were adorned with every jewel; the first was jasper, the second sapphire, the third agate, the fourth emerald, 20the fifth onyx, the sixth carnelian, the seventh chrysolite, the eighth beryl, the ninth topaz, the tenth chrysoprase, the eleventh jacinth, the twelfth amethyst. 21And the twelve gates were twelve pearls, each of the gates made of a single pearl, and the street of the city was pure gold, transparent as glass. 22And I saw no temple in the city, for its temple is the Lord God the Almighty and the Lamb. 23And the city has no need of sun or moon to shine upon it, for the glory of God is its light, and its lamp is the Lamb. 24By its light shall the nations walk; and the kings of the earth shall bring their glory into it, 25and its gates shall never be shut by day--and there shall be no night there; 26they shall bring into it the glory and the honor of the nations. 27But nothing unclean shall enter it, nor any one who practices abomination or falsehood, but only those who are written in the Lamb's book of life.
Intent of Chapter 21
Mt. Zion, The Holy City, the Mountain of God and the Church of God are equivalent expressions of God’s dwelling. God is the builder of the City (Heb. 11:9). He is also the flint of circumcision (Josh. 5:2), the Rock of Israel on which the foundations and stones are laid (Deut. 32:15,18,30-31; 1Sam. 2:2; Isa. 26:4; Isa. 51:1-2) and from which Messiah is hewn (Dan. 2:34,45). The City is built on the foundation of the Apostles and prophets, Christ being the Chief cornerstone as a dwelling for God (Eph. 2:19-22).
Psalm 68:15-16 shows that God chooses to live on Mount Bashan. This then is a transfer of dwelling for the Temple of God to this Earth. This relates to Psalm 48 as the designated City of God in the Mountain of His Holiness. God will then come to the Earth and transfer the administration of the universe here. The world is then full of His glory (Isa. 6:3). God and the Lamb become the lights of this system.
Verses 1-2: Here the Holy City is also as a bride adorned for her husband. Yet the elect have already had their marriage supper with Christ. This last union refers to the final unification of the entire celestial Host under Jesus Christ.
Verses 3-4: This distinction here is that God Himself shall be with men rather than Christ as the emissary of God and the Holy Spirit as the conferring of the essence of God. The new system is of immortality conferred by God on His creation. The Holy Spirit is the mortar that builds and binds the City of God together as an edifice.
Verses 5-8: God here confers eternal life on those in the Second Resurrection also. Bearing in mind that the First Resurrection is already one thousand years in the past, we are talking here of the Second (or general) Resurrection which confers eternal life on the repentant also. God the Father is Alpha and Omega. Christ is allocated the position as protos and eschatos or first and last from the Father (see Rev. 1:8,17; not KJV). There is a distinction in these terms. The disqualification for eternal life in the Second Resurrection is listed here. Those who do not repent are simply allowed to die and are burnt as refuse (cf. also Arche of the Creation of God as Alpha and Omega (No. 229)).
Verses 9-14: The Holy City is a spiritual edifice. It is comprised of the sons of God. The new Holy City of God is based on the same structure as given to Moses at Sinai. It is in four divisions of three, making twelve. The twelve tribes of Israel are the basis of the divisions. All Gentiles of every nation are allocated to these twelve groups. The twelve Apostles are the judges heading the twelve tribes (Mat. 19:28). The twelve Apostles are the twelve foundations of the City, and the twelve stones of Israel referred to in history and prophecy (Josh. 4:5). The 144,000 are allocated 12,000 to each tribe (Rev. 7:5-8). Here the notion of government is the reverse of hierarchy. It is one of support where the foundation is the Apostles, and the City rests on those foundations.
Verses15-16: The elect of the Philadelphian system are made pillars in the Temple of God (Rev. 3:12). They perform a key function for the Millennium and thus become central to the City of God (cf. Pillars of Philadelphia (No. 283)).
The Measurement of the Temple (No. 137) had taken place at Revelation 11:1. That naos or Temple was in fact the elect. This City has no Temple, as we will see. This City is the entire Tabernacle as it extends the presence of God to every one of the individuals that comprise its walls and structure. This is a spiritual edifice of immortal beings.
This City is twelve thousand stadia (rendered furlongs) long, high and wide. The dimensions are also based on the concept of the twelve thousand to each tribe but here structured so as to render the City as a cube. The length of a stadion (plural stadia) was traditionally 600 Greek feet – i.e. 200 yards approximately (Smith’s Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities). There were 400 cubits in a stadion – thus 215.5 yards (Interp. Dict. of the Bible, Vol. 4, p. 838).
Twelve thousand stadia equal to 2,586,000 yards, or 1,469 miles, or 2,364 kilometres. Thus each wall measures 2,158,896 square miles or 5,586,624 square kilometres. The City of God is then 1,728,000,000,000 cubic stadia. One cubic stadion is equivalent to 4003 or 64,000,000 cubic cubits, where a cubit is the measure of an angel and a man (see below). Thus 1,728,000,000,000 x 64,000,000 may be the total sum of the entities involved.
The City of God (No. 180) is based on the spiritual distribution of the priesthood of the 144,000. The City is a perfect cube as the Holy of Holies in the Temple of Solomon was a perfect cube of twenty cubits. The altar of Ezekiel 43:16-17 is twelve cubits long and twelve cubits broad. The dimensions thus become an extension of the concept of the Holy of Holies and the altar. God is thus extending and replicating Himself. The structure of the City is based on the selection of the elect who form its structure and dimension.
Revelation 21:17 And he measured the wall thereof, an hundred and forty and four cubits, according to the measure of a man, that is, of the angel.
There are one thousand of the angelic Host in the central administration; one of the thousand redeemed mankind (Job 33:23; RSV). This Angel of Redemption was elohim of Israel (Gen. 48:15-16).
The wall was 144 cubits and the measure of an angel here is synonymous with that of a man. Thus mankind here has become as angels or brothers of and equal to the angelic realm as sons of God in accordance with the promises of Christ in Luke 20:36. If we assume from this text that it relates to the 144,000, there are 1,000 divisions of 144 forming the wall and the outer structure of the City of God. We can see that there are two councils of 72 (the hebdomekonta[duo] of Lk. 10:1,17) in the 144. However, there were 1,000 of the angelic Host. There were 2,000 times 72 in the 144,000. Thus there would be 2,000 dual systems (or 288,000 men and angels) in the new universal administration of Deuteronomy 4:19, governed from here on the Earth.
Revelation 21:18 And the building of the wall of it was of jasper: and the city was pure gold, like unto clear glass.
The entire system will be as gold refined in the fire. There will be no sin and it will be seen by all to be clear and perfect.
Verses 19-21: As mentioned, the foundations of the City were the twelve Apostles. Each of these foundations is allocated a precious stone as a symbol of their capacity to refract light. All precious stones are measured on a refractive index. The Light is God and the Lamb. Each of the twelve has intrinsic value.
The gates to the City were of a single pearl. This single pearl is the pearl of great price of the calling of God (Mat. 13:46). A pearl is formed from a seed planted in an oyster. The seed can be grit. The oyster forms the pearl by placing layer upon layer of nacre around the seed. This seed is the mustard seed of the calling as the Spirit of God. That is why each gate is a single pearl. Each must make his/her own pearl and enter the City of God through the narrow gate (Mat. 7:14). Thus the pearl is the calling of God, which is the means of entry to the City. Each pearl is made from the initial seed and built by the Holy Spirit as a product of the individual oyster or person. No person can give this entry or product to another. This is why the wise virgins could not give the oil of the lamps to the foolish virgins who did not have enough.
The gate to the City is in fact built on the Law and the Testimony (Isa. 8:20). It is built layer upon layer, precept upon precept and line upon line (Isa. 28:10). This forms a knowledge of the Mysteries of God (Mat. 13:11-23).
Verses 22-26: We have now progressed to the point where there is no Temple needed as God and Christ dwell in the entire structure. The Millennium was the testing vehicle for the new structure. The entire Host are converted and the entire Gentile structure has become associated with this City, and in fact are part of it through the elect and the administration. Those led by the Spirit of God are sons of God (Rom. 8:14). This Plan of God was laid out before the foundation of the Earth.
(cf. No. 229)
Revelation 21:6 shows the point when this event happens. Christ becomes the Alpha and the Omega and the arche and the telos. He is stated as arche or the beginning of the creation of God from Revelation 3:14. Here we have arche as beginning and telos as end. The word occurred is the collective neuter plural gegonan (cf. Rev. 16 and 17 and Marshall's Interlinear RSV). It is translated as it is done. However it means, and Marshall renders it as, it has occurred.
It has occurred is translated as it is done to conceal the concept that this process of God becoming all in all commences with Christ who was not that way in the beginning.
We are thus dealing with a progressive concept of the activities of Messiah and the elect. "Behold I make all things new".
God is becoming all in all. Thus God is the Omega or end result of His own creation. The Trinitarian translators of the KJV deliberately hide this fact and concept from its readers (cf. The Elect as Elohim (No. 001) and The Plan of Salvation (No. 001A).
1Then he showed me the river of the water of life, bright as crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb 2through the middle of the street of the city; also, on either side of the river, the tree of life with its twelve kinds of fruit, yielding its fruit each month; and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. 3There shall no more be anything accursed, but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it, and his servants shall worship him; 4they shall see his face, and his name shall be on their foreheads. 5And night shall be no more; they need no light of lamp or sun, for the Lord God will be their light, and they shall reign for ever and ever. 6And he said to me, "These words are trustworthy and true. And the Lord, the God of the spirits of the prophets, has sent his angel to show his servants what must soon take place. 7And behold, I am coming soon." Blessed is he who keeps the words of the prophecy of this book. 8I John am he who heard and saw these things. And when I heard and saw them, I fell down to worship at the feet of the angel who showed them to me; 9but he said to me, "You must not do that! I am a fellow servant with you and your brethren the prophets, and with those who keep the words of this book. Worship God." 10And he said to me, "Do not seal up the words of the prophecy of this book, for the time is near. 11Let the evildoer still do evil, and the filthy still be filthy, and the righteous still do right, and the holy still be holy." 12"Behold, I am coming soon, bringing my recompense, to repay every one for what he has done. 13I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end." 14Blessed are those who wash their robes, that they may have the right to the tree of life and that they may enter the city by the gates. 15Outside are the dogs and sorcerers and fornicators and murderers and idolaters, and every one who loves and practices falsehood. 16"I Jesus have sent my angel to you with this testimony for the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, the bright morning star." 17The Spirit and the Bride say, "Come." And let him who hears say, "Come." And let him who is thirsty come, let him who desires take the water of life without price. 18I warn every one who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: if any one adds to them, God will add to him the plagues described in this book, 19and if any one takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God will take away his share in the tree of life and in the holy city, which are described in this book. 20He who testifies to these things says, "Surely I am coming soon." Amen. Come, Lord Jesus! 21The grace of the Lord Jesus be with all the saints. Amen.
Intent of Chapter 22
Verses 1-5: The Tree of Life is restored and the fruit is given for the healing of the nations under the twelve divisions, which are based on the twelve tribes of Israel. Thus each nation is grafted onto a tribe.
Immortal life has been granted to the nations and they have been healed. The structure of the rulership of the heavens is thus still within the allocations that God made under the seventy sons of God at the beginning (Deut. 32:8 RSV, LXX and DSS). The divisions of the universe take place along the lines of the twelve tribes in four quadrants, which we have seen was the original model but this time as a flawless system. The divisions are based on the three and the thirty, the seventy, and the 120 and so on down to the 12,000 in each tribe. The elect were given administration over the planet for the Millennium (Lk. 19:17-19), being like angels (Mat. 22:30). They are sons of God (Mat. 5:3-11). This position is extended to all the nations (Mat. 8:11), being the pleasure of God the Father (Lk. 12:32). The divisions act as kings and priests to the creation for the next phase of the development of the universe. The 1,000 divisions referred to above are based on the structure of the 144,000 that have an infrastructure themselves. These 1,000 divisions of the angelic Host are combined with the 1,000 of the human Host. This would make 2,000 dual councils of the 144 above, both human and angelic.
The name of God is placed on the forehead of the servants of God. Thus the authority of God over the universe will rest in the administration under Christ. These beings will judge the universe. They are all elohim (Zech. 12:8). They rule both the Earth (Ps. 8:1-9; Dan. 2:44-45) and the newly-ordered universe (Dan. 7:27; 12:3; Deut. 4:19).
Verses 6-9 Worship is due to God, or Eloah, alone (Deut. 32:17). The duty of the elect is to obey the Bible as the command of God. The elect are given understanding of prophecy such that it becomes a command of God in its own right. Thus the prophecies of the Old Testament and the New Testament become orders that the elect must implement as it falls to their power. Thus the restoration is an order to the elect (see Isa. 66:19-24). We have placed our hand to the plough and we must not look back.
In Revelation 22:13-16 we see the two titles become merged in Messiah as he comes as the bright and morning star.
He is given these titles as delegated power from God. As the protos of the creation he becomes one with the Alpha. As the eschatos of the creation he becomes one with the Omega as God becomes all in all (Eph. 4:6).
In verse 18 the final warning is given to those who would add to the words of the prophecy of this book. If any add to them they have added to them the plagues described in the book. If any deletes from this book God takes away his share in the Tree of Life and in the Holy City described in this book.
He who testifies to these things says “Surely I am coming soon.” Amen, Come Lord Jesus!
The Grace of the Lord Jesus be with all the saints Amen.
Many have tried to denigrate this text and many have tried to remove it from the Canon. The punishment is clear enough. They are removed from the tree of life and the City of God. The retraining of the Second Resurrection will perhaps suffice to restore these misguided individuals to the faith under the Great White Throne Judgment of chapter 20. We will remove all those misguided individuals from the earth under the re-education of the Last Days and all the False religion will be eradicated.
Bullinger’s Notes on Revelation Chs. 18-22 (for KJV)
after, &c. See Revelation 1:19.
another. App-124. Not the speaker of Rev 17, but one invested with great authority and glory.
come = coming.
heaven. See Revelation 3:12.
lightened. Greek. photizo. Compare App-130.
with. Same as "from", above.
mightily. The texts read "with (Greek. en) a mighty (compare App-172.) voice (Greek. phone)".
Babylon . . . fallen. See Revelation 14:8. Isaiah 21:9. Jeremiah 51:8.
the = a.
habitation. Greek. katoiketerion. Only here and Ephesians 2:22, which see.
devils = demons. See App-101.
hold = prison, or cage, as below. See Revelation 2:10; Revelation 20:7.
foul = unclean, as below.
cage. See "hold" above.
unclean. See "foul" above.
nations = the nations.
wine . . . wrath = furious wine. Figure of speech. Antimereia (of Noun). App-6.
through = by. Greek. ek. App-104.
abundance. App-172.1; Revelation 176:1.
delicacies = luxury. Greek. strenos. Only here in NT.; its verb only in verses: Revelation 7:9. This identifies the city with that of Rev 17. In addition, it is here implied that Babylon will become the head-quarters of Spiritism, the habitation of demons, and the hold of every unclean spirit. Jer 50and Jer 51should be carefully studied in connection with these two chapters, as many of the things predicted there await fulfillment in the coming evil days.
Come = Come forth.
My People. See Jeremiah 50:4-9, and compare Isaiah 10:20, Isaiah 10:24.
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
plagues. Greek. plege. See Revelation 13:3 (wound) and App-197.
have, hath. Omit.
reached. The texts read "joined" or "built together".
unto = up to.
Reward = Render. Compare Mark 12:17 and Jeremiah 51:24.
rewarded = rendered. Same word.
you. Omit, and supply "others".
double. This word is put for full compensation. Figure of speech Metonymy. App-6.
unto her. Omit.
according to. App-104.
hath filled, fill = mixed, mix.
glorified. Seep. 1511.
lived deliciously. See Revelation 18:3 above.
torment. Greek. basanismos. Here; verses: Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:15. See Revelation 9:5.
I sit, &c. See Isaiah 47:8.
queen. A queen who is not a widow, implies a king-consort. Greek. "no widow" may be Figure of speech Tapeinosis. App-6.
Therefore = For this cause. Greek. dia (App-104. Revelation 18:2) touto.
come. i.e. suddenly. Same word in 2 Peter 3:10.
strong = mighty, as verses: Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:21. See Revelation 18:2.
judgeth. The texts read "judged". App-122. The suddenness and completeness of Babylon"s judgment and disappearance from the face of the earth is the prominent feature of this prophecy, proving that that judgment has not yet taken place. Isaiah 13:20. Jeremiah 50:13, Jeremiah 50:39, Jeremiah 50:40; Jeremiah 51:29, Jeremiah 51:37, Jeremiah 51:43; &c., await fulfillment.
for = over. App-104.
burning. Greek. purosis. Only here, Revelation 18:18, and 1 Peter 4:12.
off. Greek. apo. App-104.
that = the.
mighty. See Revelation 18:8.
judgment. App-177. These "kings of the earth" are those of Revelation 17:2. The ten kings are never seen by John apart from the beast, and the "kings of the earth" are always seen in connection with Babylon.
no man = no one. Greek. oudeis.
buyeth. Greek. agorazo, rend, "redeemed" in Revelation 5:9; Revelation 14:3, Revelation 14:4; elsewhere always "buy". First occurance: Matthew 13:44.
any = no. App-105.
more = longer. The texts read here ouketi.
precious. Greek. timios. The noun in Revelation 18:19.
most precious. Superl. of Greek. timios above.
beasts = cattle.
chariots. Greek. rheda. Only here. Gallic word for a four-wheeled coach or vehicle, a sign of luxury.
slaves. Literally bodies. Greek. soma. By Figure of speech Metonymy (App-6) for "slaves". See Genesis 36:6 (Septuagint)
souls of men = men. A Hebraism for "persons of men", or simply "men". See (Septuagint) Numbers 31:35. 1 Chronicles 5:21. Ezekiel 27:13.
souls. App-110and App-170
men. App-123. Figure of speech Polysyndeton in verses: Revelation 18:12, Revelation 18:13.
that . . . after. Literally of thy soul"s (App-110) desire (Greek. epithumia. See 1 John 2:16, 1 John 2:17).
departed. Most texts read "perished".
thou, &c. Most of the texts read "and they (men) shall never more at all (Greek. ouketi ou me. App-105.) find them". The list consists entirely of luxuries (see Revelation 18:3).
Alas, alas, = Woe! woe! as Revelation 18:10 and Revelation 18:19.
that = the.
stones = stone.
in one hour. See Revelation 18:19.
come, &c As "made desolate", Revelation 18:18.
all . . . ships. The texts read "every one that saileth any whither", indicating travellers of all kinds.
trade . . . sea. Literally work the sea, i.e. for a living.
when, &c. = as they looked upon (the texts read App-133.)
this = the.
that = the.
wherein = in (App-104.) which.
ships = the ships.
by reason of. Greek. ek. App-104.
one hour. See Revelation 18:10 and compare Isaiah 47:11; Isaiah 18:17 and Jeremiah 50:26, Jeremiah 18:19 and Jeremiah 51:8. Ancient Babylon, after its capture by Cyrus, gradually diminished.
is = was.
made desolate. See "come to nought", Revelation 18:17.
over. App-104., with texts.
holy = saints (see Acts 9:13) and.
apostles, prophets. App-189.
hath avenged. Literally judged your judgment (App-122 and App-177); i.e. hath folly avenged you. Figure of speech polyptoton. App-6.
on. Greek. ek. App-104. Now has come the time of the avenging Luke 18:7, Luke 18:8.
like = as it were.
violence = furious rush. Greek. hormema. Only here. Revised Version reads "mighty fall". Compare Acts 14:5 (assault. Greek. horme).
that. = the.
no more at all. Six times here. App-105.
at all. Compare Jeremiah 51:64. Ezekiel 26:21.
any more = no more, as above.
candle = lamp.
shine. See App-106.
the, the. Omit.
sorceries = sorcery. See Revelation 9:21.
nations = the nations.
deceived. App-128. Compare Isaiah 47:9.
saints. See Revelation 18:20 (holy).
after, &c. See Revelation 4:1.
heard. The texts add "as it were".
heaven. See Revelation 3:12.
Alleluia. See Psalms 104:35.
Salvation = The salvation.
glory = the glory. See p. 1511.
and honour. The texts omit.
power = the power. App-172.1 and Revelation 176:1.
unto, &c. The texts read "of our God".
said = have said Notice Figure of speech Epanadiplosis. App-6.
rose = goeth.
for, &c. See Revelation 1:6 and App-151. a.
elders. See Revelation 4:4.
beasts. Greek. zoa, as Revelation 4:6. Elders and beasts mentioned here for the last time.
That sat. Literally the (One) sitting. on. App-104. with texts.
Amen. See Revelation 3:14 and p. 1511 (Verily).
out of = from. Greek. ek, but the texts read apo. App-104.
servants. App-190. See Psalms 134:1.
and, both. Omit.
mighty. Compare App-172.
God. App-98. Most of the texts read "our God".
Omnipotent = The Omnipotent. App-98. "Almighty" in Revelation 19:15.
rejoice = be exceeding glad. Only here in Rev. First occurance: Matthew 5:12.
honour = the glory. See Revelation 19:1.
marriage = marriage-feast. Greek. gamos. See Matthew 22:2, &c.; Revelation 25:10; and (Septuagint) Genesis 29:22. Esther 1:5; Esther 2:18; Esther 9:22. In Revelation 19:9 "supper". See App-140and App-197.
wife. Greek. gune. Here and Revelation 21:9 "wife". Elsewhere in Rev. "woman".
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
clean and white. The texts read "bright and pure". See Revelation 15:6.
righteousness. App-191. Plural.
saints = the saints. See Acts 9:13.
unto = to.
Blessed. Greek. makarios. The fourth of the seven occurrences of "Blessed" in Rev., and the forty-seventh in N.T. See Matthew 5:3.
called . . . Lamb. See Psalms 45:14 for some of the "called" there indicated.
supper. Greek. deipnon. First occurrence Matthew 23:6. Here equivalent to the marriage feast of Revelation 19:7.
unto = to.
at = before. Greek. emprosthen.
said. Literally saith.
unto = to.
fellowservant. Greek. sundoulos. Here, Revelation 6:11; Revelation 22:9, in Rev.
of = with.
have = hold.
testimony. See Revelation 1:2.
prophecy. Greek. propheteia. Occurs seven times in Rev. See Revelation 1:3. This testimony may be as concerning Jesus, or as sent or borne by Him, as in Revelation 1:1
heaven = the heaven. See Revelation 3:12.
white horse. Contrast that and its rider of Revelation 6:2.
He That sat, &c. The prophecy in Zechariah 9:9 as to the Lord entering Jerusalem riding on an ass was fulfilled literally (Matthew 21:4-11); why then stumble, as do some, at the prediction here of "this same Jesus" riding on a "white horse"? Zechariah 9:9, Zechariah 9:10 takes in both comings. See also Psa 45.
upon him = thereon.
Faithful. App-150and App-175
His. Read "And His".
were, as = are. The texts omit "as".
on. Same as "upon", Revelation 19:11.
crowns = diadems. See Revelation 12:3; Revelation 13:1.
had = hath.
no man = no one. Greek. oudeis.
but = if (App-118. a) not
dipped = dyed, or stained. Greek. bapto, as Luke 16:24. John 13:26. Some texts read "sprinkled", Greek. rhantizo. See the word in Hebrews 9:13.
in = with. No preposition. Compare Isaiah 9:5; Isaiah 63:1-6.
called. If the comma is after "called", as in some Bibles, it would mean"announced" or "called", with inverts: if omitted, it is descriptive without inverts.
were = are.
upon. As "on", Revelation 19:4.
This verse contains references to Psalms 2:9. Isaiah 11:4; Isaiah 49:2; Isaiah 63:3.
out of. App-104.
rule. Literally "shepherd". Greek. poimaino. See Revelation 2:27; Revelation 2:7. Revelation 2:17; Revelation 12:5.
rod = sceptre. See Psalms 2:9.
and. The texts read here "of the Almighty" (Revelation 19:6).
KING . . . LORDS. See Revelation 17:14. Here at length we have the final fulfillment of Psa 2
an = one.
the midst of heaven = mid-heaven, as Revelation 14:6.
gather . . . together. The texts read "be gathered together".
the supper . . . God. The texts read "the great supper of God".
mighty. Compare App-172.
men, men. Omit.
free. See Revelation 6:15.
bond. App-190. See verses: Revelation 19:2, Revelation 19:5. Compare Ezekiel 39:17-22 concerning this, or a subsequent, period. The invitation of "beasts" to the feast in Ezekiel not mentioned here.
gathered together. Greek. sunago, as Revelation 19:17.
war. The texts add "the". See Revelation 16:14.
against = with. Greek. meta. App-104.
That sat = Who sitteth.
taken = arrested. In Acts 12:4 and 2 Corinthians 11:32, "apprehend". See the use of the verb in John 7:30; John 10:39.
false prophet. See Revelation 16:13 with Revelation 20:10.
Wrought = did. Greek. poieo. Same as "make", Revelation 19:19.
miracles = the signs. App-176.
cast, &c. Compare Daniel 7:11.
a = the.
brimstone. Greek. theion. See Revelation 9:17.
the remnant = the rest. App-124.
proceeded. The texts read "came forth".
come = coming.
heaven. See Revelation 3:12.
in = upon. Greek. epi.
laid hold on. Greek. krateo. Compare App-172.
on = of.
dragon. See Revelation 12:3.
that = the.
Satan. The texts add "the". See App-19.
thousand years. i.e. the millennium.
him. Greek."it" (the pit).
set, &c. Literally sealed it over him.
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
should, &c. = should not (App-105) deceive (App-128).
more = longer.
fulfilled. Compare App-125.
after that. Greek. meta tauta, as Revelation 1:19 (hereafter).
season = time. Greek. chronos. App-195. Satan is literal; the angel who binds him is literal; the abyss into which he is cast is literal; and the chain, whatever it may be composed of, is literal too.
they. i.e. the Father and Christ (Revelation 3:21), and the heavenly beings associated with them as assessors (Revelation 1:4; and compare Matthew 25:31. 1 Timothy 5:21).
was given. i.e. not judging or ruling authority, but sentence, or pronouncement, or award in their favour.
unto = for. No preposition. Dative case.
them. i.e. those who had been beheaded.
and = even.
I saw. Omit.
souls. App-110. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part). App-6.
were = had been.
witness = testimony. See Revelation 19:10 and p. 1511.
which = whosoever. Greek. hoitines, as Matthew 5:39, Matthew 5:41.
had, &c. = did not (App-105) worship (App-137)
neither. Greek. oude.
neither . . . received = and received (See Revelation 13:16) not (App-105).
his = the.
or in = and upon(as above).
hands = hand.
lived. i.e. lived again. App-170.
Christ. App-98. The resurrection of these not mentioned but necessarily implied.
But. The texts omit.
the rest, &c. The texts read "the rest of the dead lived not until (i.e. again until)", which presumes that "the rest of the dead" are not living during the thousand years.
the rest. App-124. Occurs: Romans 11:7. 1 Corinthians 15:37 (other). 1 Thessalonians 4:13 (others); &c.
the dead. App-139.
were = should be.
finished. See "fulfilled", Revelation 20:3.
is. No verb.
Blessed. Greek. makarios. Forty-eighth occurances in N.T.
on such = over (App-104.) these.
priests. See Revelation 1:6.
a. Some texts read "the". The "first resurrection" is the former of the two resurrections referred to in this passage. It is the antithesis of the resurrection implied though not specifically mentioned in Revelation 20:12. This is the resurrection which was both the subject of revelation and the hope of Israel. Compare the antithesis in Daniel 12:2. John 6:29. Acts 24:15. This "first resurrection" should not be confused with 1 Thessalonians 4:13-17 (see notes there and on Philippians 1:3, Philippians 1:11).
expired. See "fulfilled", Revelation 20:3.
out of. App-104.
quarters. As Revelation 7:1 (corners).
Gog and Magog. Here, apparently an inclusive term for all the Gentile nations; East (Gog) and West (Magog). The destruction of Gog and Magog, Eze 39, is pre-millennial. See Revelation 39:25.
battle = the war. The texts add the article. Reference to the war predicted and determined.
number. Greek. arithmos. One of the ten (App-10and App-197.) occurances in Rev.
as the sand, &c. Greek. Paroemia. App-6. Compare Hebrews 11:12.
earth. App-129. Compare Isaiah 8:8 and Habakkuk 1:6.
saints. See Daniel 7:18, Daniel 7:27. Acts 9:13.
devoured. As Revelation 12:4.
lake, &c. See Revelation 19:20.
where. The texts add "also".
beast, false prophet. See Revelation 19:20.
are. No verb. Read "were", or "were cast".
and. Add "they".
tormented. Last of five occurances in Rev. Compare Revelation 9:5.
for ever, &c. App-151. a.
great. That in Revelation 4:2-6 was seen by John in heaven; this on earth.
white. Indicating holiness and righteousness. No adjuncts mentioned. Only one throne and one Judge.
the dead. Those of Revelation 20:5. See App-139.
small, &c. Read "the great and the small".
stand = standing.
God. The texts read "the throne".
those = the.
hell = the grave. See Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8 and App-131.
every man = each one.
death. The texts add "the lake of fire".
whosoever = if (App-118. a) any one (App-123.), Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton (App-6) verses: Revelation 20:9-18.
heaven, &c. See Isaiah 51:16 (plant, &c); Revelation 65:17; Revelation 66:22. 2 Peter 3:7.
new. See Matthew 9:17.
heaven. See Revelation 3:12.
first. Greek. former, as Revelation 21:4.
there . . . sea = the sea is no more (longer). A proof that this belongs to the post-millennial period. See Psalms 72:8, Zechariah 9:10.
John. The texts omit.
new Jerusalem. See Revelation 3:12. The city "above" (Galatians 1:4, Galatians 1:26); "which hath the foundations" (Hebrews 11:10); "the heavenly Jerusalem" (Hebrews 12:22).
bride. Greek. numphe. See v. 9; Revelation 22:17, and App-197.
heaven. The texts read "the throne".
dwell = tabernacle. Greek. skenoo. See John 1:14.
with them. Compare Exodus 29:46, &c, for God"s promise to dwell among His People in the Land. For the promise to dwell among His People, restored Israel, in the millennial Land, see Zechariah 2:10, Zechariah 2:11; Zechariah 8:3, &c. Here we have the final and glorious fulfillment of the promise in Isaiah 7:14 and Matthew 1:23 IMMANUEL, God with us.
people = peoples. Greek. laos. Whereas it was people, Israel, it is now peoples, called "the nations" in Revelation 21:24.
from. The texts read Greek. ek. App-104.
there shall, &c. Read "death shall be no (App-105.) more" (longer).
neither, nor. Greek. oute.
any more = no more, as above.
for. The texts omit.
former things. Compare Isaiah 25:7, Isaiah 25:8; Isaiah 35:10. Jeremiah 31:16.
sat = sitteth. Literally the (One) sitting.
upon. App-104. with texts.
said = saith.
unto me. The texts omit.
true, &c. The texts read "faithful and true". Compare Revelation 19:11.
faithful. App-150and App-175
unto = to.
It is done. The texts read "They are come to pass". Compare Revelation 16:17.
Alpha, &c. See Revelation 1:8.
End. Compare App-125.
freely. See John 15:25.
overcometh. Last of seventeen occurances in Rev. See Revelation 2:7 and App-197.
inherit. Greek. kleronomeo. Only here in Rev.
all. The texts read "these".
fearful. Greek. deilos. Only here; Matthew 8:26, and Mark 4:40. In Septuagint Deuteronomy 20:8. Judges 7:3, Judges 7:10.
unbelieving. Greek. apiatoa. First occurance: Matthew 17:17 (faithless).
abominable. Greek. bdelussomai. Only here and Romans 2:22. Frequently in Septuagint. See the noun in Revelation 17:4.
sorcerers. Greek. pharmakos. Only here and Revelation 22:15 (pharmakos). See Revelation 9:21; Revelation 18:23 and Galatians 1:5, Galatians 1:20 (witchcraft). Those who have commerce with evil spirits, as modern "Spiritists". Occurs in Septuagint
all liars = all the false (Greek. pseudes). Here; Revelation 2:2. Acts 6:13 (false).
unto me. The texts omit.
seven . . . plagues. See Revelation 16:1.
bride. Greek. numphe. See Revelation 21:2. Matthew 10:35. Luke 12:63. John 3:29. John 18:23; John 22:17. The "wife" and the "bride" here must not be confused with "the wife" of Revelation 19:7. The wife of Revelation 19:7 is Israel, called out from all the nations for blessing in the Land, the earthly consort of "the great King" (compare Psa 45. Jeremiah 3:14). The "bride, the Lamb"s wife" here is still of Israel, but that Israel of the "heavenly calling" (Hebrews 3:1); all those connected with the "heavenly" country and "the city which hath the foundations", for which "they looked" (Hebrews 11:13-16). See App-197.
wife. Greek. gune, always rend. "wife", or "woman". The wife of Revelation 19:7 is not called numphe. Here she is both numphe and gune (first occurrence Matthew 1:20). See App-197.
that great. The texts omit, and read "the holy city Jerusalem".
glory. See p. 1611.
had = having.
twelve gates. Compare Ezekiel 48:31-34. Both John and Ezekiel wrote as they were moved by the Holy Spirit, and their specific descriptions refer to different cities. See Revelation 21:9.
at. Greek. epi. App-104.
foundations. Greek. themelios. See App-146.
in. The texts read App-104.
apostles. The twelfth will be Matthias, not Judas, See App-174 and App-189. Twelve is the basic number of the measurements of the city. See App-197 and App-10.
golden reed, &c. The texts add metron here, as Revelation 21:17, and read "for a measure".
to = in order that. Greek. hina.
measure = he might measure.
furlongs. Greek. stadion. See Revelation 14:20 and App-51.
length . . . equal. The "holy city" is presented to us as a perfect cube of 12,000 furlongs. In Solomon"s Temple "the Holy of Holies" was a perfect cube of twenty cubits.
hundred . . . cubits. About 300 feet. See Ezekiel 43:13 and App-88.
according to. Omit.
man. App-123. the = an.
building = fabric, or material. Greek. endomesis. Only here. pure, clear. Same word.
jasper. Compare this and the other stones here with those in Aaron"s breastplate (Exodus 28:17-21).
street. Greek. plateia. See Revelation 22:2 and Compare Revelation 11:8. Figure of speech Heterosis (of Number). App-6.
as it were. Not that it is glass, but gold of a kind unknown to us.
Temple. Last occurance of the word.
therein = in (Greek. en) it.
Temple of it. This shows clearly that the wonders and glories revealed here belong to post-millennial times and ages. Therefore, the city of the great King during the thousand years, with "the sanctuary" of Ezekiel 45:2, et al., and its palace-temple, will have "passed away". There cannot be two Jerusalems on the earth at one and the same time. The new Jerusalem comes down on the new earth, thus taking the place of the former city. See App-197.
had = hath.
need, &c. Compare Isaiah 60:19-20 for the privileges of the millennial reign, foreshadowing the extended ones set forth here.
neither. Greek. oude.
to = in order to. Greek. hina.
in it. The texts omit "in", reading "on (dative case) her".
lighten. Same as Revelation 18:1.
of . . . saved. The texts omit.
it. Greek."her", as above. So also verses: Revelation 25:27.
kings, &c. Notice the order in that day.
and honour. The texts omit.
honour = the honour.
the nations. These are the "sheep" nations of His right hand during the millennial reign. See Matthew 25:31-46.
in no wise. App-105.
that defileth = unclean. Greek. koinoo, as the texts.
neither whatsoever. Read "or he that".
worketh . . . lie = worketh (or maketh) a lying abomination, i.e. an idol (Greek. baelugma. See Revelation 17:5).
or = and.
but = only. Greek. ei me.
Lamb"s book of life. See Revelation 13:8. Note the Figure of speech. Polysyndeton (App-6) in verses: Revelation 21:22-27.
pure. The texts omit.
water of life. i.e. living water.
out of. App-104.
throne. The throne of the great Priest-King (Zechariah 6:13) of the "thousand years" now gives place to the glorious "throne of God and of the Lamb", for God is now "all in all". Contrast Ezekiel 47:1-11, where the river proceeds from the "house" associated with the altar; here, from the throne.
tree. Greek. xulon. Here, verses: Revelation 22:14, Revelation 22:19, Revelation 22:7, and Luke 23:31, the only occs. of the word as used of living wood.
which bare = bearing.
and yielded = yielding.
every month. Literally according to (App-104.) each month.
healing. In Ezekiel 47:12 is the Divine provision for preserving and restoring health. Here, the fruits are for the enjoyment of the citizens of the new Jerusalem, and the "leaves" for the healing (health and "haleness") of the nations. For the former things having "passed away", there will be no sickness there (Revelation 21:4).
no more = no (App-105) longer.
curse. Greek. katanathema, or with the texts, katathema, an accursed thing. Compare Zechariah 14:11 (Septuagint anathema).
but = and.
serve. App-187and App-190.
in = upon. Greek. epi.
there. The texts read "longer".
neither. Literally and.
shall reign, &c. Compare the reign of the saints with Messiah for 1,000 years and the reign here with God "for ever and ever".
for ever and ever. App-151. a. The last of the twenty-one (App-10) Occurs in N.T. (fourteen in Rev.) of the full phrase.
he. i.e. the angel of Revelation 1:1.
unto = to.
sayings = words. App-121.
the Lord God. As Revelation 22:5.
God = the God
of . . . prophets. The texts read "of the spirits (App-101.) of the prophets" (App-189).
shortly. As Revelation 1:1. Note Figure of speech Polysyndeton (App-6) in verses: Revelation 22:1-6.
Behold. The texts read "And behold" (App-183.:2).
quickly. Greek. tachu. The words of the angel pass into the words of Christ; see verses: Revelation 22:12, Revelation 22:20, Revelation 22:11. Compare Revelation 1:7 and Revelation 22:16 below.
blessed. The forty-ninth occurance of makarios in N.T.
keepeth. See John 17:6.
saw, &c. The texts read "am he that heard and saw these things".
seen = saw, as above.
Then = And.
See, &c. Compare Revelation 19:10.
for. The texts omit.
fellowservant. As Revelation 6:11; Revelation 19:10. Compare App-190.
unjust = unrighteous. Pres. part, of Greek. adikeo: everywhere in Rev. except here rend. "hurt". See Revelation 2:11 and compare App-128.
let . . . unjust = let him act unrighteously. Aor. tense.
filthy = morally defiled. Greek. rhupoo. Only here. Compare James 1:21 (rhuiparia) and 1 Peter 3:21 (rhupos). The texts, however, read here rhuparos rhupantheto.
be righteous. The texts read "do (or work) righteousness" (App-191.)
be holy. Greek. hagiazo. Only occurrence of the verb in Rev. In N.T. almost invariably "sanctify". Note Figure of speech Epistrophe (App-6) in this verse.
And. The texts omit.
every man = each one.
shall be. The texts read "is".
Alpha, &c. See Revelation 1:8.
Blessed. Greek. makarios. Fiftieth (App-10) and last occurance in N.T. Compare the forty-two occs. of the Hebrew equivalent, "ashrey, the first in Deuteronomy 33:29 (Happy).
do His commandments. The texts read "wash their robes", but it is probable that the reading of the Received Text is correct. It is a question of reading in the original MSS., and not of translation.
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
to = over. App-104.
through = by. No preposition.
Figure of speech Synecdoche of Species (App-6) in this verse.
For. The texts omit.
dogs. The word "dog" appears in Phoenician remains, as applied to a class of servants attached to a temple of Ashtoreth in Cyprus.
lie. Compare Revelation 21:27.
I. The Lord Himself speaks.
have sent = sent. App-174.
testify. See p. 1611.
in. Greek. epi. App-104.
churches. See Revelation 1:4 and App-186. The "assemblies" of Rev. 6 and Rev. 8 specifically, during the fulfillment of "the prophecy of this book".
Offspring. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species). App-6. See Acts 17:28.
David. See Revelation 3:7; Revelation 5:5.
and, and. Omit.
morning = the morning. Greek. orthrinos, only here. The texts read ho pro"inos, as Revelation 2:28.
Star. Greek. aster. Fourteenth and last occurance in Rev. See App-197. Compare Numbers 24:17.
This verse illustrates the Figure of speech Polysyndeton. App-6.
bride. Greek. numphe. See Revelation 21:9.
And. The texts omit.
whosoever will. Literally the one willing
freely. See Revelation 21:6.
I. The texts read I (emphatic).
testify. As Revelation 22:16, with the texts.
every man = every one.
any man = any one. App-123.
these things. The texts read "them".
unto. Greek. epi, as above.
takeaway. Greek. aphaireo. Only here in Rev. Compare Hebrews 10:4.
out of. Same as "from" above.
book of life. The texts read "tree of life". With the last two verses: compare Deuteronomy 4:2; Deuteronomy 12:32. Proverbs 30:5, Proverbs 30:6. Galatians 1:1, Galatians 1:8.
and . . . thing? . The texts omit.
quickly. Greek. tachu, as verses: Revelation 22:7, Revelation 22:12. The seventh and last solemn warning by the Lord Himself, in Rev., of His coming. It is the one great subject of the whole book, which is all prophecy. Amen. See Revelation 3:14 and 2 Corinthians 1:20.
Even so. The texts omit; and link "Amen" with John"s response, as Revised Version.
LORD. App-98. The use of the word "Lord" shows the utterance to be John"s. None of His people, when He was on earth, were ever so irreverent as to address Him as "Jesus",
grace, &c. See Revelation 1:4.
our. The texts read "the".
Christ. Most texts omit.
you all. Many texts read "all the saints".